Beta: Software for a Linguist

Fred Karlsson, Kimmo Koskenniemi and Arvi Hurskainen

Helsinki 2018


Beta system has been designed for the evaluation and processing of
linguistic supplies. It’s a multipurpose device in that it fits to
phonological, graphemic and morphophonological, and likewise to restricted
syntactic duties. It’s potential to make use of it for creating and testing
theoretical linguistic fashions, for rewriting computerized texts, and for
extraction of strings and constructions from textual content corpora. All these duties
will be carried out through the use of the identical primary Beta formalism.

Beta is simple to make use of. The expertise exhibits new consumer can study the
use of Beta after having practiced its use for some tens of hours,
ideally guided by an skilled consumer.

Beta can be environment friendly. It has been used within the universities of
Stockholm and Helsinki for implementing many sorts of purposes on
pure languages. Amongst these purposes are: FINHYP, the hyphenation
algorithm of Finnish (99.99 % precision); FINSTEMS, which produces
search stems for Finnish phrases; WGEN, which produces all inflected
word-forms of nouns and verbs in Finnish; SWEPARAD, which produces
inflected word-forms of nouns in Swedish; FINTAG, which disambiguates
phrase tokens and supplies operating Finnish textual content with floor syntactic
tags. The automated hyphenation of a number of languages accessible in
Orthografix proofing instruments has been programmed in Beta.

The essential model of Beta was first carried out by Benny Brodda in
FORTRAN in 1970s. Kimmo Koskenniemi from Helsinki rewrote it in Pascal
in 1981 and later in C-language. Fred Karlsson has written it in
InterLisp and MuLisp. Earlier implementations weren’t free and open
supply, so Kimmo Koskenniemi re-implemented the Beta program in Python
in 2017 which is free, open supply and accessible at The directions for putting in it
will also be discovered at Github, see

The formalism for Beta guidelines is virtually an identical in all
implementations talked about above. The following dialogue describes how
to make use of the Python Beta. Minor variations between the formalisms
accepted by completely different implementations might exist although.

To a terrific half the textual content of this guide is predicated on the textual content written and
revealed in Finnish by Fred Karlsson and Kimmo Koskenniemi (1990). The
main distinction is that whereas the unique authors used examples primarily based
on Finnish, the current English model makes use of primarily examples from

We categorical our honest because of Benny Brodda for making Beta accessible
to us and lots of different customers of this magnificent device.

Helsinki, February 2018

Fred Karlsson, Kimmo Koskenniemi, Arvi Hurskainen


Beta is a pc formalism primarily based on string substitutions and a state
mechanism. Beta can be utilized for performing vital duties in
linguistic analysis, reminiscent of:

  1. To design theoretical fashions of phonological, morpho(phono)logical,
    lexical and partly syntactic phenomena for analyzing phrases or sentences
    or producing phrase tokens.

  2. To extract and exclude patterns and constructions from textual content corpora,
    lexicons and so on.

  3. To transform and modify computer-readable linguistic supplies.

The consumer of Beta doesn’t want himself to know the inner construction of
this system in any element. The linguist writes guidelines based on the
Beta rule formalism which is simple to study. The Beta program first reads
within the guidelines after which performs the transformations to the enter information as
outlined by the principles.

Beta rule grammars could also be written to carry out varied sorts of duties,
together with information conversion, extracting attention-grabbing examples out of textual content
information, modelling morphological constructions or processes and deciding on
right readings of ambiguous phrase tokens and parsing floor
syntactic constructions of sentences. Thus, the Beta program can be utilized
each for duties for producing and for analyzing linguistic

By substitution we imply that in a string W = X Y Z, which has a
substring Y, that substring is substituted by one other string Q. After
the alternative, we get a brand new string X Q Z, which once more could also be made
topic to different substitutions. Beta guidelines do precisely this sort of
substitutions. Typically we want to partition the principles in order that not all
of them can be found for all substitutions. For this function, Beta has
a state mechanism. By coming into and testing states as is described in
this doc. Beta grammars are sometimes designed to encompass phases
which observe one another in a managed method.

Beta takes as enter strings of various lengths, both straight from
keyboard, reminiscent of particular person phrases or sentences, or from a file, such
as textual content corpora of assorted sizes, as much as tons of of 1000’s of
phrases. Sure definitions inform this system, how massive information it’s
speculated to course of at a time. These information could also be particular person phrases,
strains of phrases, clauses, or sentences (as outlined by punctuation
characters). The Beta program continues to rework every enter report
so long as any of the principles apply. When no additional guidelines will be
utilized, the method is completed and the ensuing string is output.

The output could also be directed to the display screen, or to a file, wherein case it
will be processed additional based on want. In Unix or Gnu/Linux
environments, the consumer can mix packages into so referred to as pipelines. A
Beta program is usually a component in such a sequence of packages, every of
which performs a selected half of a bigger job. On different platforms,
Beta can be utilized in order that the output goes to a file and is subsequently
processed by different packages.

When the Beta program is executed, a Beta grammar should be given to it.
Enter to this system could also be given both from the terminal or taken
from a file. Output might both seem on the terminal or it might be
directed right into a file. If the consumer has issues in giving
the names of the rule grammar recordsdata and enter recordsdata required by
Python Beta, one can ask it for assist:

$ --help

By default, enter items are phrase tokens separated by clean area. If
a number of phrase tokens seem on a line, every is processed individually. It
can be potential to outline the file, to which the outcomes are directed.
The definitions within the Beta grammar regulate the dimensions of the enter
information (phrases, strains, sentences).

The Python Beta operates upon strings of characters. What it precisely
means wants some clarification. A string is a set of consecutive
characters, containing zero, one, or extra characters. When utilizing the
Python Beta, one might use any Unicode UTF-Eight letters and symbols within the
Latin alphabets (see the Appendix for an express record of allowed
characters). Older, eight-bit characters, reminiscent of Latin-1 or Latin-9,
can’t be used with Python Beta. Information utilizing such coding can simply be
transformed into Unicode UTF-Eight coding, (see the Appendix for the
sensible conversion). The characters which can be used within the
definitions, guidelines and within the information, embrace:

  1. Alphabetical characters i.e. letters. Higher-case and lower-case
    letters are distinct. Letters with varied diacritic marks (á, è, ô,
    ï) or variants of extra widespread letters (ð, þ, æ) are additionally allowed.

  2. Digits: Zero 1 2 Three Four 5 6 7 Eight 9

  3. All of the punctuation marks and particular characters, that are discovered on
    the keyboard:

    . , ! ? : ; ( ) < > ' ` " & % / = - _ + # $ * @
    [  ]   ^ ~
  1. Some invisible marks (white area), reminiscent of clean ( ), tab mark
    (tab), and a newline.

When processing regular textual content, one should pay attention to the issues attributable to
these marks and characters. If one desires, for instance, to extract all
situations of a sample, one should take account additionally of all such circumstances,
the place the search string is surrounded by one or two punctuation marks or
particular characters, reminiscent of:

automobile, automobile. automobile! automobile? automobile: automobile; 'automobile' "automobile" (automobile)

Phrase tokens could also be recognized through the use of appropriate Beta guidelines and
definitions. Significantly vital characters in defining contexts are
the character (#), which is used to mark the start and finish of the
logical report, and the area ( ), which is situated on either side of
the phrase tokens of the operating textual content.

The substring means the string of consecutive characters, that are half
of an extended string. For instance, in a string ABCD, substrings are AB,
BC, ABC, BCD and CD, however not AC, ACD or BD.

Within the following dialogue on Beta, it’s assumed that the consumer has
entry to such an working system, the place instructions are given on a
command line (e.g. DOS, Linux, Unix, Mac OS X). The consumer also needs to be
acquainted with a program editor working in ASCII or UTF-Eight format
(e.g. Emacs, Epsilon). If one desires to make use of a textual content editor, reminiscent of
Microsoft Workplace Phrase, in writing Beta grammars, one should be sure that
that the recordsdata shall be saved in a ‘Textual content Solely’ (or ‘Plain Textual content’)
format. In any other case the hidden codes within the file will trigger
unpredictable and normally flawed outcomes.


2.1. Parts of a Beta grammar

Beta grammars should be written with an appropriate program editor right into a
file containing the definitions and the principles. Amongst such appropriate
editors are these of the Emacs household, reminiscent of Gnu Emacs, MicroEmacs
and Epsilon. Additionally, such textual content editors can be utilized if they allow
studying and saving the file in ‘Textual content Solely’ Unicode UTF-Eight coding.

Beta grammar recordsdata are given names based on the conventions of the
working system (Linux, Unix, Mac OS X, Home windows). Beta grammar recordsdata
are sometimes given names with a suffix ‘.bta’ or ‘.beta’. Examples of
appropriate rule file names are:


In Linux and Unix, higher and lower-case letters are completely different characters
in file names.

The Beta rule grammar has three sections:

... definitions of character units ...
... definitions of state units ...
... rewriting guidelines ...

The RULES part should be current in each grammar file. Both of the
first two sections or each, could also be empty (after which one may omit the
key phrase, e.g. STATE-SETS).

2.2. Remark strains

Beta grammar recordsdata might include any quantity of remark strains, which do
not have an effect on the perform of the principles in any approach. They doc the
function of the entire Beta grammar or its phases or particular person units and
guidelines. Every remark line begins with an exclamation mark (!). Word
that the exclamation mark should be the very first character on the road
(not even a clean might precede it). It’s as much as the writer of the Beta
grammar file to outline the place to place the feedback and what number of to
write. It’s advisable no less than to put in writing the identify of the grammar file,
to explain its job, and likewise the identify of the writer and time of
writing, and the dates of modifications and additions. There could also be
a number of consecutive remark strains:

! NOUNS.BTA A. Hurskainen 15.Four. 1992
! These guidelines extract the noun entries in
! *Kamusi ya Kiswahili Sanifu* and record them
! within the order they seem within the dictionary.

Remark strains are significantly helpful within the RULES part, which can
include tons of, and even 1000’s, of guidelines. It is usually vital
to construction the Beta grammar in order that the designer, and probably additionally
others, might afterwards have the ability to learn what the rule grammar is
designed to do. Guidelines belonging collectively could also be grouped below one set
of remark strains, which perform as an instruction to the following
guidelines. Extra concerning the formalism in part Three.


Within the part CHARACTER-SETS, there are definitions for the potential
situations for segmental contexts. These definitions are given as units
of characters. Every character set should have a reputation, adopted by a colon
(:), and after it are given the concrete characters belonging to this
set. The names of the character units might have any kind; they might consist
of letters, numbers, and sure particular characters. They could not
embrace an empty area. All different marks and characters could also be written as
they’re besides the empty area, which can be used as a separator
between characters. If an empty area is included into a personality set,
it may be finished by writing the string BLANK.

 #: #
 Punc: . : ; ! ?
 Con: p t okay d s h v j l m n
 Vo: a e i o u
 Ck: p t okay
 Vbk: u o a

The identify of the primary context set is (#), and it consists of just one
character (#), which is the delimiter between enter information. Punc
consists of punctuation marks, which usually finish sentences. Con has some
consonants, and Vo comprises 5 vowels and so on. The units might include
pure and non-natural units. It’s as much as the consumer to outline what sorts
of units are wanted. The above examples include solely lower-case letters.
If the fabric to be processed has additionally upper-case letters, additionally they
should be included into the character units.

It’s potential to deal with additionally the newline and tab characters with Beta
guidelines. There aren’t any newline marks within the enter textual content, however it’s potential
to supply them by way of rewriting guidelines. For this function, the
% character (%) has been reserved, and the distinctive
characters are produced as combos of two characters (each when
defining the character units and within the X and Y elements of guidelines):

  • %n newline

  • %t tab

  • %; semicolon (in guidelines)

  • %! exclamation mark (within the first column)

  • %% % mark

These combos of two characters should be utilized in guidelines in addition to in
character set definitions, e.g.:

Spec: ! %% / ( ) ? ; : * ' " ^ ~ &
Sep: BLANK %n %t #

2.Four. State units

When working, Beta guidelines make the most of additionally the so-called state mechanism. A
state will be any constructive integer (of cheap dimension). State units
seem within the guidelines as situations for the appliance of guidelines, in order that
the appliance of a rule is feasible solely, if the method is at that
second in a state, which belongs to the state set outlined within the rule.
In different respects, the state units are formally fairly related with
character units, e.g.:

Begin: 1
Start: 1 2
5: 5
Sx: 1 2 Three Four 5 6
W: 7
567: 5 6 7
6,10: 6 10

Within the above instance, the state set Begin has solely the state 1. The
state set Start has two states, 1 and a pair of. State set 5 has solely the state
5, whereas the state set Sx has the states 1 to six. The state set ‘567’
has the states 5, 6 and seven, whereas the state set ‘6,10’ has the states 6
and 10. Character units and state units might have additionally an identical names.
They won’t get combined, as a result of they’re referred to in several
locations within the guidelines.

One might separate particular person characters or state numbers with one or
extra areas within the definitions of character units and state units. The
strains could also be so long as wanted to incorporate all members within the units. Tab
character ought to, nonetheless, be prevented. The colon (:) after the set
identify is vital, as a result of it signifies the border between the set
identify (on the left) and the members belonging to the set (on the
proper). Empty strains are permitted at varied elements of the Beta grammar
file and they’re ignored.

2.5. RULES

RULES is often the biggest part of the Beta grammar file. The foundations
are substitution guidelines, and their context situations are outlined within the
part CHARACTER-SETS, and the state situations are outlined within the
part STATE-SETS. The algorithm is predicated on the fastidiously
designed cooperation of character units and state units.

Within the following is given an instance of a small grammar file, which
transforms the vowel u into w between the consonant m and a vowel.

! demou-w.bta ( u > w between 'm' and a vowel)
! A. Hurskainen 15.Four. 1992
Vo: a e i o u
M: M m
Begin: 1
!               lc rc   sc rs mv md
u; w;            M Vo Begin Zero  5  1

The enter report is a phrase, that’s, a string of characters separated by
empty areas (or newline) by default. Because of this if there are
a number of such phrases on a line, every phrase is processed individually and the
results of every is printed on a line of its personal. The rule seems to be for
potential occurrences of u and rewrites the u as a w, if the context
situations M and Vo are met.

Earlier than explaining the construction of particular person guidelines and the perform of
this system in additional element, we’ll take a concrete instance and
experiment with it through the use of a pc. Assuming that the above grammar
file demou-w.bta has been saved within the present listing (the listing
the place we’re at the moment working), we might execute this system by writing
on the command line (once more assuming that the program has been
put in correctly):

$ demou-w.bta

After being referred to as this system reads within the grammar file, interprets
the principles after which waits for enter. Allow us to enter a phrase to be


After this, examples to be analyzed could also be given one after the other from the
keyboard, one phrase per line. This system responds by producing the
reworked string, e.g.:


That is how the Beta program sometimes works: a string in and one other
out. If we’re concerned about discovering out via which steps the method
goes, we might ask this system to indicate extra of the intermediate steps in
the method. This facility is helpful in tracing the interaction of the
guidelines, and it helps in recognizing weaknesses and bugs in guidelines. A solution to
ask for this sort of tracing is to incorporate a parameter -v 1 or -v 2 on
the command which begins the Beta program. We are able to then see the
intermediate steps as follows. The primary line is the command beginning
Beta, the second line is the phrase we typed as enter to the principles. The
final line is the output string this system produces, and the strains
earlier than that include the tracing data.

$ demou-w.bta -v 2
## >>> mualimu ## -- 1
##m >>> ualimu ## -- 1
u;w; M Vo Begin Zero 5 1
##mw >>> alimu## -- 1
##mwa >>> limu## -- 1
##mwal >>> imu## -- 1
##mwali >>> mu## -- 1
##mwalim >>> u## -- 1
##mwalimu >>> ## -- 1
##mwalimu# >>> # -- 1

Right here the >>> marks the factors the place the Beta processor is. It
begins from the start, i.e. simply after the boundary marker ##
and appears for a rule to be utilized there. There’s none, so it proceeds
one character to the suitable. Now it’s trying on the ‘u’ and finds a
rule to use, and removes the ‘u’ and replaces it with a ‘w’. It
continues on the level after the alternative. No additional guidelines are discovered
because the processor goes to the suitable one character at a time. When it
reaches the tip marker ##, the string is full and is printed.

Often we aren’t that curious to see all these steps the place no guidelines
are utilized. Then we use a weaker hint, ‘-v 1’:

$ demou-w.bta -v 1
u;w; M Vo Begin Zero 5 1
##mw >>> alimu ## -- 1

This (weaker) hint facility will also be activated throughout an interactive
session by coming into a line consisting of ##. This system then
responds by Hint now ON. Hint could also be turned off by giving the identical
command once more.

Hint Now ON

If we enter the string muanamuali, we get the next traced output:

u;w; M Vo Begin Zero 5 1
##mw >>> anamuali## -- 1
u;w; M Vo Begin Zero 5 1
##mwanamw >>> ali## -- 1

We see that the identical rule has utilized two instances, as a result of there are two
occurrences with correct contexts in the identical string, the place the context
situations are met.

On Linux, Unix and Mac OS X platforms, you possibly can exit the Beta program by
the coming into a Management-D (= press Ctrl-key first after which D-key with out
releasing the Ctrl key). In Home windows and MS-DOS working system, one
enters a Management-Z so as to sign the tip of enter and exit the Beta


Three.1. The essential elements of a Beta rule

The precept of the substitution grammar is well-known from the speculation
of formal languages. Thue, Publish and Turing, for instance, developed this
principle. The rewrite guidelines of the generative grammar are of the identical
common kind:

X -> Y / LC _ RC

This implies, rewrite X as Y within the context, the place the context situations
(LC=left context, RC=proper context) are fulfilled. X and Y are the
substitution a part of the rule, and LC and RC are its segmental context
situations. Each context are simply single characters instantly earlier than
or respectively after the X half. Guidelines of this kind are typically used
in describing syntactical, morpho(phono)logical and phonological
phenomena. The Beta rule comprises corresponding rule parameters X, Y, LC
and RC, and a few extra parameters, such because the state mechanism.
Every context situation is solely a reputation of a personality set as outlined in
the start of the rule grammar. The check is the character within the
context that belongs to the set named in LC or respectively in RC. Guidelines
needn’t have express context situation. Both one or each will be simply
a zero (Zero) which implies that the corresponding check will not be made (i.e. it
at all times succeeds).

State is a mechanism for the rule processor to recollect one thing. The
rule processor is at all times in a sure state, and when making use of, Beta
guidelines can transfer the processor into one other state as a aspect impact. Every
rule defines whether or not there’s a transfer to a different state after the
software of that rule or not. The present state of the Beta
processor has one vital use: particular person Beta guidelines will be
activated or inactivated via their state situation, which exams
whether or not the present state of the processor is among the many set of allowed
states for that rule.

The state mechanism is managed by two rule parameters within the Beta
guidelines: SC (state situation), and RS (ensuing state). The state-sets
had been launched above, and the state situation is normally simply the identify
of a state-set, and the check successfully checks whether or not the processor’s
present state belongs to that set. Understand that SC refers to a set
of states
, the RS at all times refers to a single state. Guidelines want neither
change nor check the state of the processor. A state situation zero (Zero)
implies that no check is required and a ensuing state (Zero) implies that the
processor will stay in the identical state.

The seventh parameter of a Beta rule, MV (transfer), strikes the dot (additionally
referred to as management or cursor) to a degree the place the evaluation continues.
Usually the method is directed to proceed instantly after the
substitution half Y, however typically there’s a must return backwards
to a sure level, or additional to the suitable. That is outlined by giving
the suitable numeric parameter (see under Three.2.5).

The eighth and final parameter (MD) permits non-deterministic software
of guidelines. Usually guidelines are utilized deterministically, in order that in the event that they
will be utilized then they are going to be utilized, and the choice of not making use of
will not be thought of in any respect. That is the deterministic mode of software.
With the assistance of the MD-parameter it’s potential to make the rule to
apply in a non-deterministic approach, whereby Beta processes each
alternate options in parallel. The primary various is that the rule is
utilized instantly with out contemplating different alternate options. The second
various is that this rule shall be left unapplied in order that the
applicability of different guidelines could also be examined. Non-deterministic guidelines are
wanted in describing free variation, as an example. In such circumstances extra
than one rule might apply to the identical primary string.

The total Beta rule has eight rule parameters, which kind three teams
(see the graph under): (1) defines the substitution (1-Three), (2) defines
the situations for substitution (Four-5), and (Three) directs additional
processing (7-Eight).

(1) (2) (Three) (Four) (5) (6) (7) (Eight)
textual content to be sub- stituted results of sub- stitution left con- textual content proper con- textual content state cond. consequence state transfer mode of appl.

Every rule has the eight parameter values, both as given or not directly
by default. A full Beta rule with all parameter values seems to be as follows:

ki; ch;          Clean    Vo    Affr    2       5      1

In accordance with the rule, the string ki (X) is rewritten as ch (Y), if
there’s a character belonging to the character set Clean on the left
aspect (LC), and a personality belonging to the character set Vo (RC) on the
proper aspect, and likewise assuming that this system is within the state belonging
to the state set Affr (SC). The substitution is carried out provided that all
the three situations are met. If any of the situations will not be met, the
rule doesn’t apply.

If all three situations (LC, RC and SC) are met, the substitution is
executed and the management strikes to the state 2 (RS). The additional evaluation
is sustained instantly after the substitution half (MV=5), and the
rule is utilized within the regular method, within the deterministic approach (MD=1).

The rewriting elements (X, Y) finish at all times in a semicolon (;). If semicolons
or exclamation marks shall be included in them, a % character (%)
should be positioned in entrance of them (cf. part 2.Three, and observe additionally that
additionally within the X and Y elements you should write two % indicators (%%) to
signify one within the enter/output information).

The ensuing states are integers of the vary 1 – 127. Strikes to new
states are outlined solely as parameters in guidelines. To be significant, they
should happen within the state units outlined within the part STATE-SETS.

The parameter MOVE (MV) has a number of numerical values, and the parameter
for the mode of software (MD) has solely the values 1 and a pair of.

Beneath is an in depth description of rule parameters.

Three.2. Parameters for substitution: X, Y

Parameters for substitution, i.e. the part to be rewritten (X) and
the results of rewriting (Y), are concrete strings. Any strings could also be
rewritten, together with all punctuation marks and the area ( ). X should
be written beginning instantly from the left margin. The juncture
indicating the tip of the half X is the primary semicolon (;). After the
semicolon there’s one empty area. Then follows the substitution half
Y. If a couple of clean is added after the primary semicolon, these
shall be a part of the substitution string. Such empty areas might
typically be helpful, for instance in indicating the place of the discovered
string in looking. Listed here are examples of substitution:

X; Y; alternative         feedback
a; b; "a" -> "b"
ab; ac; "ab" -> "ac"
abc; def; "abc" -> "def"
abc; d; "abc" -> "d"
a; ; "a" -> "" (a, semicolon, area, semicolon) a is deleted
a; ; "a" -> " " a is modified into an area
abc; ; "abc" -> "" (a, b, c, semicolon, area, semicolon)
abc;  ; "abc" -> " " (a, b, c, semicolon, two areas, semicolon)
abc;   abc; "abc " -> "  abc" (a, b, c, semicolon, three areas, a, b, c, semicolon) add two further empty areas in entrance of the string abc
 ; ; " " -> "" (area, semicolon, area, semicolon) an area character is deleted
a; a; a is simply noticed; used e.g. when shifting into one other state when a is encountered
 ;   ; " " -> " " (one area, semicolon, two areas, semicolon) an empty area is simply noticed; used significantly in extraction when passing a phrase boundary; by including the worth of state by one every time when an empty area has been encountered, it’s potential to rely what number of phrases have been bypassed.

An vital restriction on the substitution is that X and Y should be
concrete strings. By ‘concrete’ is right here meant that the elements to be
rewritten can’t include abstractions, which signify character units.
If one desires, for instance, to explain the variation of the nominal
prefix of the category 9/10 nouns in Swahili, one should write all of them
concretely with context situations, e.g.:

NI; n;          (parameter values)
NI; ny;         (parameter values)
NI; m;          (parameter values)
NI; ;           (parameter values)

It’s not, due to this fact, potential to make use of a set of segments outlined in
CHARACTER-SETS, within the rewriting a part of the rule, like this:

#: #
Ai: i a u
Ai; ;      Zero  #      (different parameter values)

This rule doesn’t delete the vowels i, a and u within the context, the place
the left context is something and the suitable context is the tip of the
enter report. This rule deletes the string Ai within the given context, and
not the weather of the character set Ai. The supposed impact shall be
achieved on this approach:

#: #
i; ;       Zero  #      (different parameter values)
a; ;       Zero  #      (different parameter values)
u; ;       Zero  #      (different parameter values)

There are two ideas regarding the order of guidelines. If there are two
or extra guidelines, every of which might apply to the X-part of the string,
the longest one is given priority. If the X-parts are equally lengthy,
the primary so as is given priority. That is the order of precedence,
assuming that additionally the context (LC, RC) and state (SC) situations are
fulfilled. If these situations will not be fulfilled, the subsequent within the order
of precedence is taken for related testing.

If we apply, for instance, to the string ##>>>abcdefgh## the
following guidelines:

ab; advert;              (parameter values)
abc; fgh;            (parameter values, the identical or completely different)

first shall be checked whether or not the context situations of the latter rule
shall be fulfilled (the situations will not be given within the instance). In the event that they
are met, abc -> fgh. If they aren’t met, the context situations of the
former rule shall be examined. The string with an extended X-part might,
due to this fact, take guidelines which in any other case would match additionally to different strings,
if context situations are no less than partly an identical. If context
situations are completely completely different, such ‘bleeding’ will not be potential.

One other precept is that among the many guidelines with an identical X-parts,
guidelines shall be searched for software within the order they’re written in
the Beta grammar. There could also be different guidelines in between. If there are
the next guidelines within the grammar:

a; b;                (parameter values)
a; ab;               (parameter values, the identical or completely different)

first shall be tried a -> b. If the order of the principles is reverse, then
the rule a -> ab shall be tried first.

Three.Three. Context situations: LC, RC

The context situations (LC, RC) are expressed by the names of such
character units, which have been outlined within the part CHARACTER-SETS.
The units of segments so outlined encompass parts of one character
solely, by no means of strings of characters. Within the context situations of a
Beta rule, it’s potential to refer solely to the phase instantly to
the left or proper of the substitution half, and this phase could also be solely
one character lengthy.

In 2.5 we had a easy instance of how the entries within the part
CHARACTER-SETS needs to be formulated. Right here we talk about this matter in
extra element. Beneath is given an instance of a Beta grammar, which
describes the variation of the nominal prefix NI of the noun class
9/10 in Swahili.

M: b v
N: d g j z
NY: a e i o u
Zero: c f okay m n p s t
!       lc rc  sc rs mv md
NI; m;   # M    Zero  Zero  5  1
NI; n;   # N    Zero  Zero  5  1
NI; ny;  # NY   Zero  Zero  5  1
NI; ;    # Zero Zero  Zero  5  1

As is seen in CHARACTER-SETS above, the definition of character units
begins with the identify of the set. The identify is adopted instantly by a
colon. After the identify, the person characters belonging to that set
are listed, separated by an area. These are the weather of the context
units. Within the above instance, NI is rewritten as m, when the left context
is the enter report boundary, and the suitable context is a personality
belonging to the set M. Within the definition below CHARACTER-SETS we see
that the suitable context could also be both b or v. The string NI will be
rewritten additionally as n, ny, or zero, relying on the suitable context.

There aren’t any restrictions as to the format of the set identify. Nevertheless,
some widespread sense and mnemonics is really useful to make the principles as
readable as potential. Within the part CHARACTER-SETS, empty areas are
allowed to start with of the road, in addition to after the colon, and
between particular person parts of the units. However bear in mind, don’t use tabs
in writing a Beta grammar!

When the context on both or either side will be something, the
Zero-character (zero) is used to point that there aren’t any restrictions.
There isn’t any must outline the worth of Zero. Word that within the above
instance, within the final rule, it’s not potential to make use of the set identify Zero for
the set of consonants, which trigger the zero realization of the
substitution string. It’s because the quantity Zero is reserved for
denoting non-restriction. As an alternative some other set identify, on this case Zero,
is appropriate.

If a complement of a personality set or state set is required, that is finished
by inserting the minus register entrance of the set identify, e.g. -Segm, -Zero.
The complement set consists of all different characters that don’t belong
to the given set.

It’s potential to outline as many units as one considers wanted. The
largest variety of units this system can digest is given within the
parenthesis, when this system known as. In apply, nonetheless, seldom
greater than ten or twenty are wanted.

It’s as much as the linguist to resolve which units are wanted. The units can
be pure or non-natural, relying on the given job. It’s, of
course, theoretically sound to attempt to discover as pure context situations
as potential.

Higher and decrease case characters should be outlined within the character
units, if the duty requires it. This system doesn’t require, nonetheless,
that each one the characters encountered within the enter textual content are outlined. Solely
the characters referred to in context situations should be outlined.

Three.Four. State situations

State situations are units of particular person states. A set might include one or
extra states. There isn’t any direct connection between a person state
and the state situation with the identical identify. If just one state belongs to
a state set, it could be handy to call the state utilizing merely its
quantity, as follows:

14: 14

In case there are a couple of state belonging to the identical state set,
the usage of numbers in naming the set is much less informative. Within the
following are examples of state units:

Begin: 1
Cnt: 2 Three
Three: Three
456: Four 5 6
35: Three 5

The definition of state units and their software in apply, as effectively
as debugging, requires clear and logical pondering. The consumer decides
himself which state situations shall be taken into use, and which
particular person states are outlined belonging to every state set.

Throughout substitutions, the rule processor is at all times in a sure
state. When a brand new logical report is purple in, the method at all times begins
from state 1. The rule processor continues to be on this state as
lengthy as one of many guidelines strikes the processor into one other state. The
course of continues within the state which is given within the fourth parameter
of the rule (RS), and if nothing is indicated, it continues within the
state the place it was final moved in a rule software. However do not forget that
a brand new logical report learn in begins once more from state 1. State
situations are one of many three situations for the appliance of
guidelines (the opposite two are LC and RC). A rule is utilized solely when the
context situations and the state situation are fulfilled.

The next instance illustrates the interaction between states. Word
that, due to simplicity, context restrictions have been

! states.bta (illustrates the usage of states)
! A.H. 15.Four. 1992
Begin: 1
24: 2 Four
13: 1 Three
35: Three 5
!               lc rc   sc rs mv md
ae; ai;          Zero  Zero Begin Four  5  1      (rule 1)
i; ii;           Zero  Zero    24 Three  5  1      (rule 2)
ou; uu;          Zero  Zero    13 5  5  1      (rule Three)
x; xx;           Zero  Zero    24 Four  5  1      (rule Four)
yz; yx;          Zero  Zero    35 6  5  1      (rule 5)
a; b;            Zero  Zero Begin 2  5  1      (rule 6)

When the string aeiouxyz is entered, with hint on (by parameter -v
1), we get the next hint:

$ states.bta -v 1
ae;ai; Zero Zero Begin Four 5 1
##ai >>> iouxyz## -- Four
i;ii; Zero Zero 24 Three 5 1
##aiii >>> ouxyz## -- Three
ou;uu; Zero Zero 13 5 5 1
##aiiiuu >>> xyz## -- 5
yz;yx; Zero Zero 35 6 5 1
##aiiiuuxyx >>> ## -- 6

The hint output exhibits that 4 of the six guidelines have been utilized.
Rule 1 is first utilized, as a result of the string instantly matches with
the X-part of the rule, and the state situation within the rule is Begin,
which has the state 1 (the method at all times begins from state 1). Word
that rule 6 would additionally fulfil the situations, however as a result of its X-part
is shorter than that of rule 1, it loses the competitors. It is usually
sequentially later than rule 1. After software of rule 1, the state
is modified to Four, and the dot strikes to indicate the character instantly
after the Y-part. There it ‘sees’ the string i and applies the rule,
as a result of the state situation belongs to the set 24, the place state Four is
one in every of its members. Rule 2 strikes the state to three, whereas the dot strikes
to level the string o. The string ou matches with the X-part of rule
Three, and since its state situation can be met (state Three), the rule is
utilized. State is moved to five and the dot factors to the string x. At
first look it appears as if additionally rule Four would apply, as a result of its X-part
matches with the string. It doesn’t, nonetheless, as a result of the state
situation will not be met. The dot strikes ahead to seek out potential guidelines to
apply, and finds the string yz, which is the X-part of rule 5. As a result of
its state situations (35) embrace the state 5, the rule is utilized,
and the state is moved to six. As a result of no extra guidelines apply, the
ensuing string is monitored.

Three.5. Ensuing states: RS

How the principles are utilized depends upon the situation parameters (LC, RC,
SC). When a rule has utilized, usually the management is moved to a different
state, and the quantity (or identify) of the brand new state is indicated by the
fourth rule parameter (RS=ensuing state). The ensuing state is
at all times a transfer to a single state. The states shouldn’t be combined with
the state situation
(SC), which is at all times given as a set identify. Listed here are
some examples:

!        lc rc sc rs mv md
ab; abc;  #  Zero 11  7  5  1
a; ;      Zero  # S2 11  5  1
; ;       Zero  Zero Se  9  5  1

After the appliance of the primary rule, this system is moved to state
7; the second rule strikes it to state 11, and the third strikes it to state
9. The variety of the brand new state will be larger or smaller than the present
state. Typically, the chains of ensuing states are ascending, however
strikes to decrease states are equally potential.

One single state could also be concurrently a member of a couple of state

Listed here are some extra conventions for ensuing states. If there’s
no want to maneuver the state after the appliance of a rule, the RS
parameter shall be given a price Zero (zero). Allow us to have a look at the next

S1: 1
S12: 1 2
!       lc rc  sc rs mv md
AB; AC;  Zero  Zero  S1  2  5  1
A; D;    Zero  Zero  S1  Zero  5  1
E; F;    Zero  Zero S12  Zero  5  1

If the enter string is ABE and the state is 1, rule 1 produces the
string ACE, and the method strikes to state 2. On this state, rule Three is
utilized, and this produces the string ACF, whereas the state will not be moved.
Then the enter string AE matches with the rule 2 in state 1, and the
output is DE, however the state doesn’t transfer. Now the enter string DE
matches with rule Three, and the output is DF, whereas the state continues to
be 1.

One other vital conference considerations such circumstances, the place the context
situation of the rule pertains to a number of states, and, by the appliance
of the rule, there’s a must elevate the worth of all states in
query by one. Such is the case, for instance, when completely different states
are reminiscences of the principles utilized earlier than, and there’s a must retailer
this data for additional computing, however mixed with the
data on the appliance of the present rule. This can be finished by
giving the RS-parameter the worth -1. This considerably illogical conference
means: ‘elevate the present state by one’. Correspondingly, -2
elevates the state by two and so on. For instance:

X3: Three 13 23
!      lc rc sc rs mv md
B; G;   Zero  Zero X3 -1  5  1

If the enter is BDF, and the state is 13, the rule applies and the brand new
state is 14. If the enter is B whereas being in state 24, the state after
the appliance of the rule is not going to change and it will likely be 24.

Within the regular case, i.e. when the parameter worth of RS is constructive, the
identical transfer of state considerations all of the states included within the related
state set. If the above rule had been within the kind:

!     lc rc sc rs mv md
B; G;  Zero  Zero X3  Eight  5  1

and the state units had been the identical as above, the states Three, 13, and 23
would all transfer, after the appliance of the rule, into state Eight. The
conference described by -1 is required when the states belonging to the
identical state set should be saved separate additionally after the appliance of a
sure rule. Such a collective elevation of states presupposes cautious
scaling of the states, and the institution of sufficiently massive
intervals between teams of states, which belong collectively.

Three.6. The transfer parameter

Beta processes a logical report character by character, testing whether or not
any of the principles applies, and if an relevant rule is discovered, the
additional evaluation continues from the spot, the place the dot is moved after
the appliance of the rule. There are a number of alternate options to place
the dot after substitution.

When the report is purple in, a double hash ## is positioned to the
starting and the tip of the report. The hashh has an vital perform
in displaying the start and finish of the report. If there’s # on the
left aspect of a sure character, it marks the start of the report.
If # is situated to the suitable of the character, it marks the tip of the
report. Due to the particular that means of the hash (#) character it’s
really useful that this character is not going to be used aside from indicating
the start and finish of the logical report.

The evaluation of the report proceeds, if nothing else is outlined within the
MV-parameter, character by character from left to proper. By every
character, the applicability of guidelines is examined. If an relevant rule
is encountered, it’s utilized; if not, the dot strikes one character to
the suitable on the lookout for relevant guidelines. The rule utilized defines the
level within the string, the place the search continues.

When testing relevant guidelines, Beta takes, at every character, the string
from the dot to the suitable below scrutiny. Do not forget that if there are
a couple of rule relevant at anybody time, the one with the longest
X-part has priority.

The dot is precisely within the place the place it’s moved, or the place it strikes by
its default definition. When utilizing the hint facility, the three angle
brackets >>> present the placement of the purpose after substitution.
It’s at all times within the place the place it’s moved by the fifth parameter (MV)
of the rule. If no rule is relevant for the given string, the dot
strikes one character ahead. Doubtlessly relevant guidelines are these, the
substitution a part of which (X-part) is discovered to the suitable of the dot.

To start with of study, the dot is after the inital pair of hash
indicators within the report; it’s a part of the report to be analyzed:

# >>> #abcdefg##

Beta tries to use guidelines to the next strings, and on this order*:
#abcdefg, #abcdef, #abcde, #abcd, #abc, #ab, #a, ‘#’* The primary
appropriate rule is utilized, after which the method continues as outlined by
the rule. If there isn’t any matching rule, the dot strikes one character to
the suitable and the method continues:

## >>> abcdefg##

Now the next strings shall be analyzed: abcdefg, abcdef, abcde
… and so on.

The MV-parameter has six central numerical values, and every of them
relocates the dot right into a sure place in comparison with its current location.
To be able to illuminate the assorted prospects, allow us to take a string
aacdefg, and within the guidelines the rule d -> xy. The six potential values
of the MV-parameter and their penalties are the next. Word that
after substitution the string d is rewritten as xy, because the rule defines.
Thus the rewritten string xy matches with the Y-part of the rule.

The worth The situation of dot Dot moved to

of MV after rule software level to

  1. # >>> #aacxyefg## the second of two hash indicators to start with of
    the report

  2. ##aa >>> cxyefg## the character earlier than Y, the one which was LC

  3. ##aac >>> xyefg## the primary character of Y, i.e. the character
    after LC

  4. ##aacx >>> yefg## the final character of Y, i.e. the character
    earlier than RC

  5. ##aacxy >>> efg## the character after Y, i.e. the character
    which was RC

  6. ##aacxyefg >>> ## the tip of report

If Y is empty, i.e. if the X string is deleted, the MV-points 2 and Four
are mutually an identical, in addition to the factors Three and 5.

The MV-parameter has two different extra values, utilized in particular circumstances:

Zero: the report is deleted

7: the report is accepted with out additional evaluation

The worth Zero is vital in extraction, as a result of it permits the deletion
of such information, which do not need the searched strings. The worth Zero is
additionally vital in circumstances the place the duty is to delete information (e.g. strains)
outlined in guidelines. The worth 7 is used when successful is encountered and
there isn’t any want to check the applicability of different guidelines. This speeds
up the method to some extent.

Beneath are the values of the MV-parameter proven in a schematic kind:

# # A B C LC Y Y Y RC F G H # #
 |       |  |   | |        |    |
 1       2  Three   Four 5        6    7

Three.7. The mode of software

The sixth parameter of the rule (MD) defines the best way how the rule will
be utilized. The parameter worth 1 defines a deterministic software,
and the worth 2 results a non-deterministic software. By selecting the
worth 1, which is the traditional case, the primary relevant rule shall be
utilized, with out investigating whether or not there are different relevant guidelines,
which additionally might be utilized right here. After the appliance of the rule, the
processing continues from the purpose, to which the MV-parameter of the
rule moved it.

By selecting the non-deterministic software (worth 2) the present rule
shall be utilized, however it’s going to even be left unapplied. Due to this fact, one other
copy shall be created of the present report. The present rule shall be
utilized to the opposite copy of the report, and the state is modified to the
worth outlined by the RS-parameter, and the dot is positioned as outlined by
the MV-parameter. The primary copy of the report shall be left because it was,
and it will likely be checked whether or not there are additionally different guidelines which might
apply. If there are, they are going to be utilized within the order of precedence. If
no different guidelines apply, the dot strikes one character to the suitable and the
course of continues as standard.

For demonstrating the perform of the non-deterministic mode of
software, allow us to have a look at the next job. We need to generate some
of the tense types of Swahili verbs by writing solely the string +TENSE+
instead of the tense marker. We write the next Beta grammar:

! tense.bta (produces some Swahili tense varieties)
! A.H. 15.Four. 1992
+TENSE+; +NA+; Zero Zero Zero Zero 5 2
+TENSE+; +ME+; Zero Zero Zero Zero 5 2
+TENSE+; +LI+; Zero Zero Zero Zero 5 2
+TENSE+; +KA+; Zero Zero Zero Zero 5 1

If we now enter the string NI+TENSE+SOMA, with hint on, we get the
following output:

$ tense.bta -v 1
+TENSE+;+NA+; Zero Zero Zero Zero 5 2
##NI+NA+ >>> SOMA## -- 1
+TENSE+;+ME+; Zero Zero Zero Zero 5 2
##NI+ME+ >>> SOMA## -- 1
+TENSE+;+LI+; Zero Zero Zero Zero 5 2
##NI+LI+ >>> SOMA## -- 1
+TENSE+;+KA+; Zero Zero Zero Zero 5 1
##NI+KA+ >>> SOMA## -- 1

The hint exhibits that each one 4 guidelines have been utilized on the level the place
they had been relevant. Every software produced a separate department of
processing due to the worth of the parameter MD was 2. Usually,
when MD is 1, solely the primary rule would have been utilized and the opposite
three would have been skipped as a result of the primary rule modifications the string.
One can perceive the non-deterministic guidelines in order that they each apply
the rule and do not apply it. Not making use of implies that the Beta processor
skips this rule and continues to seek out additional guidelines or possibly step
additional to the suitable. Word that the fourth rule has explicitly MD worth

  1. In any other case, we might have a fifth copy the place not one of the 4 guidelines
    have been utilized. The reader is inspired to strive the above
    instance with the extra intensive tracing ‘-v 2’ so as to see intimately
    the order wherein these 4 parallel strings are processed.

The non-deterministic software of the principles is used particularly in
describing free variation. Non-deterministic guidelines are additionally sensible
for extracting occurrences from textual content. With them one can find, mark and
output sentences the place the phrases or constructions happen, even when there
had been a number of occurrences in the identical sentence.

Three.Eight. Abbreviations in guidelines

There are a number of conventions, which can be utilized in writing guidelines.

If two or extra consecutive guidelines have an identical parameter values, it’s
sufficient to put in writing the values to the topmost rule. If no parameters are
given in a rule, the values of the earlier rule are taken because the values
of the rule. It could have been extra economical to put in writing the above guidelines
on this approach:

+TENSE+; +NA+; Zero Zero Zero Zero 5 2
+TENSE+; +ME+;
+TENSE+; +LI+;
+TENSE+; +KA+; Zero Zero Zero Zero 5 1

Word that each one the values of the final rule should be written, as a result of the
final parameter is completely different than in different guidelines.

If consecutive guidelines have partly an identical parameter values, there isn’t any
must rewrite these values, which, counted from the suitable, can
unambiguously be recognized as belonging to sure columns. Within the
following examples the parameters positioned in parentheses could also be left

!      lc  rc  sc   rs  mv  md
A; B;   V   R   S7   9   5  1
C; D;   C Sgm   12   Eight  (5  1)
E; F;   V   P   S7   9   Four  2
C; D;   C  (P   S7   9   Four  2)
G; H;   V   P   S7   9   Four  1
CC; N;  C Sgm   12   Eight  (Four  1)
E; FF;  Z   Q  (12   Eight   5  1
GG; H;  V  (Q   12   Eight   5  1)
J; Okay;  (V   Q   12   Eight   5  1)

As will be seen above, the empty areas get their interpretation
based on the worth discovered above in the identical column. This conference
to abbreviate the outline is usually used within the final parameter,
the worth of which is usually 1. If all the principles are utilized in a
deterministic approach, it is sufficient to give the worth 1 within the first rule
solely. And even there it’s not essential, as a result of the default worth of
this parameter is 1.

Extreme abbreviation of guidelines might typically trigger difficulties in
deciphering guidelines. It’s usually helpful to put in writing up all of the parameters of
the primary rule within the group of guidelines, which in any other case belong collectively
and have the identical parameter values.

Particular care should be taken to not abbreviate the outline, if all of the
parameters to the suitable will not be an identical with the earlier rule. If we
have the next guidelines:

!    lc rc sc rs mv md
A; B; #  Zero  S  Three  5  1
C; D; #  Zero  S  Four  5  1

we can’t abbreviate them on this approach:

!    lc rc sc rs mv md
A; B; #  Zero  S  Three  5  1
C; D;          Four

The latter rule can be interpreted in order that it has the worth Four as LC,
whereas it takes the remainder of the parameters from the earlier rule.
Due to this fact, the one potential abbreviation is the next:

!    lc rc sc rs mv md
A; B; #  Zero  S  Three  5  1
C; D; #  Zero  S  Four

Four. LIMITOR: The definition of the enter report

The Beta program can course of logical information of assorted lengths,
relying on the necessity in every case. Such enter information will be single
phrases, clauses, sentences, and bodily strains. The kind of the enter
report is outlined by a personality set referred to as LIMITOR throughout the part
CHARACTER-SETS. If no such set is outlined, the Beta program assumes that
the delimiter is BLANK, i.e. the empty area. By default, Beta reads in
strings of characters, that are delimited on either side by (no less than
one) empty area or the start or finish of a line.

If we need to course of the enter strains because the items, we might outline a
LIMITOR set which comprises only a # signal. In any other case the LIMITOR set
comprises the characters which delimit the items we need to course of. We
would possibly e.g. need to course of every sentence as a unit. We might use
punctuation marks such (‘.’, ‘;’, ‘?’, ‘!’) as delimiters within the LIMITOR
set. The Beta program, then, reads in items as much as the subsequent delimiter,
even when that may be on one other line. The delimiters will not be a part of
the report processed by the Beta program, solely the textual content between the
delimiters. It’s apparent that punctuation marks will not be at all times solely at
the sentence boundaries however in apply such approximations are fairly

Typically there’s a must learn in logical information longer than a
sentence. For such duties the textual content could also be quickly supplied with
particular characters, that are outlined for Beta as delimiters. One other
and sometimes extra pure answer is to maintain the report as a single line,
whereby no momentary tagging is required.

Beneath are some examples, which present the impact of assorted delimiters and
their combos on the enter report:

LIMITOR: BLANK                              (report is a phrase)
LIMITOR: #                         (report is a bodily line)
LIMITOR: . ? !       (report is a sentence; slender definition)
LIMITOR: . ? ! : ;    (report is a sentence; broad definition)

The current Beta model doesn’t take a paragraph as reminiscent of enter.
This impact will be achieved by marking first the paragraph boundaries
with a sure character and by defining it because the delimiter. One other
helpful conference, for instance in corpus texts, is to maintain the entire
paragraph as a single line. The superior program editors, reminiscent of these
belonging to the Emacs household, permit the usage of strains with the size of
1000’s of characters.


5.2. Normal

Though Beta is definitely a rewriting program, it’s also helpful in textual content
extraction. It’s potential to extract phonological, morphological and
syntactic constructions. If the textual content has been encoded, it’s potential to
use these codes as standards in looking.

The constructions to be searched shall be outlined through the use of guidelines, following
the conventions described in part Three. In textual content extraction, strings are
rewritten as such (i.e. Y-parts are equal to X-parts), and the strings
discovered shall be monitored, whereas different strings shall be discarded.

Within the following, the string to be searched known as a key, and the
case which fulfils the situations for looking known as successful. There
is often context across the hit. It’s potential to make use of e.g. the
following sorts of keys in looking:

  1. Elements of particular person phrases (prefixes, suffixes, endings and so on.).

  2. Particular person phrases.

  3. Strings of consecutive phrases.

  4. Strings of phrases (or elements of phrases) which seem consecutively or
    with different phrases in between.

Actually, a talented consumer of Beta can extract a lot of the wanted
constructions from the untagged regular textual content. It is a large benefit,
making an allowance for the laborious job of tagging the textual content simply because
of facilitating textual content extraction. If the textual content is already tagged, as is
the case in lots of annotated corpora, textual content extraction is of course simpler
and simpler.

5.2. Textual content extraction on the idea of particular person phrases

In looking, we should make it possible for all searched strings are discovered. We
should understand that one enter report might include a couple of hit.
Due to this fact, we should be sure that no less than that looking is
non-deterministic. In any other case one enter report would produce one consequence
solely; i.e. just one hit can be monitored. Allow us to reveal the duty
with a easy instance. We’ve got a string:

there have been girls and boys and lots of adults

and we need to discover the occurrences of the string ‘and’. We must always get
the next output:

there have been boys  ladies and lots of adults
there have been girls and boys  many adults

The next easy Beta grammar performs the duty:

#: #
1: 1
!            lc rc sc rs mv md
and; ;   B  B  1  Zero  7  2
#; #;         Zero  #  Zero  Zero  Zero  1

If no string is discovered the place the primary rule applies, the dot continues to
transfer ahead, till in the long run of the report it encounters the ultimate
hash #. Now the second rule applies, and since its MV-parameter
is Zero (see Three.2.5.), the entire string is discarded. If a string and is
discovered, with a clean or boundary character on either side, the method is
divided into two elements. The primary department continues additional in state 1
with out making use of the primary rule but, on the lookout for different related strings.
The second department applies the primary rule, and since its MV-parameter
is 7, the entire report is monitored instantly. The primary department will
later discover one other string and, the place it once more branches out. The primary
department continues nonetheless additional, till it will likely be killed on the last
hash (rule 2 applies). The brand new department applies the primary rule to the
second prevalence of the string and, and displays it instantly.

If we need to extract a number of sorts of strings concurrently, we might
add them to the principles. For instance, the next Beta grammar
extracts the occurrences of the phrases: and, or, however.

#: #
1: 1
!           lc rc sc rs mv md
and; ;  B  B  1  Zero  7  2
or; ;
however; ;
#; #;        Zero  #  Zero  Zero  Zero  1

5.Three. Extraction of constructions

The essential precept in looking for extra complicated constructions is similar
as described above. When an relevant rule is discovered, the method
branches out for locating additional hits. The discovered string can’t be
monitored but, nonetheless, as a result of solely the primary a part of the construction is
discovered, and it’s not positive whether or not your entire construction shall be discovered.

The answer to this downside is that the rule which finds the primary half
of the construction marks its starting and strikes to a state which retains
reminiscence of the hit of the primary a part of the construction. If different half(s)
of the construction are discovered, the tip of the construction is marked and the
complete report is monitored. Solely such information shall be monitored, the place
the entire construction is discovered; all different information shall be discarded.

Beneath is a Beta program which extracts verb constructions with the
auxiliary verb kuwa in Swahili. The Beta grammar is kind of
sophisticated, as a result of multitude of potential prefixes of the
auxiliary verb and the primary verb. For the sake of simplicity, detrimental
varieties have been omitted.

! SW-AUX.BTA, extracts auxiliary verb constructions of
! Swahili, 15.Four.1992, A. Hurskainen
#: #
B: BLANK # . , ? ! ; :
S: a b c d e f g h i j okay l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
LIMITOR: . ? !
1: 1
2: 2
Three: Three
Four: Four
5: 5
6: 6
7: 7
! mark the topic prefix of the auxiliary verb
!               lc rc sc rs mv md
ni; <>;       S  S  6  Zero  7  2
=ki; ki>>;
=me; me>>;
! If the rule has utilized so far,
! assume that the remainder of the string is verb stem.
! No additional exams made.
! Abandon different alternate options.
#; #;            Zero  #  Zero  Zero  Zero  1

The above Beta grammar has been so structured that it minimizes the
want of writing guidelines. It makes use of the restrictions of assorted
morpheme combos, and due to this fact the X- and Y-parts include solely
one morpheme. Significantly discover the usage of a brief tag ‘=’ in
the morpheme boundary, the place any of a set of morphemes might mix
with any of one other set of morphemes. The dot in such guidelines is moved
to level the final character of the Y-part, which is the tag
‘=’. When the management continues to search for relevant guidelines, it
‘sees’ this tag first. Solely such guidelines apply on this level, the
X-part of which begins with this tag. By prefixing the potential
following morphemes with this tag, the appliance of the rule in a
flawed place (e.g. when an analogous string is encountered later within the
report) is prevented. Discover additionally the usage of state modifications in directing
permissible combos. The primary and final ones of the sample
mixture guidelines are utilized non-deterministically, thus permitting
them to use to a couple of string within the report. When the method
of setting up the construction has initiated, the mode of software
is often deterministic, besides in such circumstances, the place a risk
for software should be given to competing guidelines (guidelines for
various morpheme markers).


6.1. Enter and output

The next pointers apply to the Linux and Unix programs. So as
to get data on the usage of this system, one might first ask it for

$ --help

This system responds by itemizing the completely different parameters it
understands and their brief varieties. Then, one can begin the Beta
program e.g. for testing. When the Beta program known as, additionally a Beta
grammar file should be given to it.

$ sw-aux.bta

Now Beta expects enter from the keyboard, and the usual output is the
display screen. It is a helpful mode of operation when testing guidelines and
learning their operation, probably with hint on (with the extra
parameter ‘-v 1’ or by coming into a double hash ##).

If enter is taken from a file, this shall be given because the third
parameter. Additionally, on this case the output is seen on the display screen.

$ sw-aux.bta < check.txt

6.2. Hint

When testing and debugging guidelines, it's usually helpful to have the hint
facility on. One can begin the Beta program with a parameter '-v 1' or
'-v 2' for tracing. The weaker tracing will also be began within the center
of an interactive session by coming into a double hash ##. By
coming into the double hash once more, the hint shall be turned off. The hint
facility prints out each rule which is utilized and exhibits the purpose
the place the dot was moved after the appliance of the rule.

6.Three. Capability of the Python Beta program

The Python Beta program has no particular limits for the variety of guidelines,
character units or state units. Python system adapts to the wants of every
execution of the Beta program. Current-day computer systems, even modest
laptops, seem to have a lot reminiscence that even massive Beta rule units
will be processed with none issues.

6.Four. What's Beta good for in 2018?

Processing of textual content has developed tremendously for the reason that time when Beta
turned accessible for the primary time. There are a number of duties in language
processing that may be carried out in plenty of methods. Particularly Linux
and Unix have many utilities that can be utilized for a lot of duties described
above. It's a sensible coverage that the consumer makes use of such packages,
utilities and programming languages that one is aware of, as a result of
the tip result's what counts.

It was identified above that Beta guidelines don't assist common
expressions. It is a true limitation of Beta, and it needs to be taken
into consideration when selecting the technique for performing the required
job. An instance of the ability of normal expressions is the
implementation of a rewriting program that converts the disjoining
writing system of Kwanyama language into the conjoining system
(conjoining writing is predominant in Bantu languages). The system was
programmed in Beta and Perl. The Beta model required a complete of
187,000 guidelines for verbs alone, whereas the Perl implementation wanted solely
48 guidelines.

It may be claimed that each one what is finished by Beta will be finished with
typically accessible programming instruments. It might be true, however it's not
at all times handy to take action. For instance, the ability of state situations
is often not accessible in different instruments. Though the linear context
situations (LC and RC) can be found in Perl, for instance, the
processing can't be managed with a 3rd parameter, which state
situations present.

Beta is nice in retrieving or extracting strings with various context.
Along with the default report dimension (a string) and the road delimiter
#, one can outline different characters as a delimiter and thus outline the
dimension of the context in string retrieval. Beta is very good in
retrieving strings, every of which has a type of its personal, and common
expressions can't be used for generalizing search. The writing of guidelines
will be automated with scripts or macros, so minimal quantity of
typing is required. Due to this fact, particular person phrases from textual content will be
retrieved, in addition to the phrases with context, outlined with various

However Beta alone will not be preferrred for concordances, the place hits should be
aligned and maybe sorted based on the suitable or left context. There
are many such packages freely accessible, particularly in Linux

Beta can be good in deleting strings, though this facility is usually
forgotten. The RS worth Zero of the rule causes the report to be deleted.
Thus, by defining the report dimension fastidiously it's potential to delete
from textual content particular person phrases, strains, sentences, and so on. Actually, what will be
retrieved will also be deleted. Beta is a useful gadget for evaluating the
contexts of two lists, as a result of it doesn't require the lists to be
sorted first, which most utilities require, earlier than comparability turns into
significant. With Beta it's potential to delete from record A such phrases
which are present in record B, and vice versa, and the order of the phrases in
lists doesn't matter. Additionally, phrases shared by each lists will be retrieved
with the retrieving choice. Due to this fact, the union and intersection of two
lists will be carried out with Beta.

Lastly, we wish to level out that though Beta can carry out a
wide selection of duties, it's sensible to search for the simplest, but dependable,
approach of fixing the issue. Typically it's not Beta, however if you're
handy with Beta, you'll usually end up implementing it with
it. And there are duties which are very exhausting to implement with out Beta.


Putting in the Python Beta program

To be able to use the Python Beta program, one must have a reasonably
current model of Python3 put in and the file which is
situated in and is freely
accessible. The detailed directions for putting in this system are
discovered within the Beta wiki. One
associated package deal, datrie, is required along with the program
itself. See the directions in the identical Beta wiki. Please, report back to
the writer in the event you meet any issues in putting in or utilizing

Characters which can be utilized within the Beta grammars and in enter texts

Letters and symbols that can be utilized as characters in Beta encompass
Unicode UTF-Eight characters that are wanted for writing these European
languages which use some Latin alphabet. Thus, Greek and Cyrillic
scripts can't be used with out some minor modifications within the Python
Beta program.

ASCII printable characters:


Latin alphabet characters utilized by European languages (roughly the
following ones):


Changing eight-bit texts and Beta grammar recordsdata into Unicode UTF-Eight

From eight-bit Latin-1 to UTF-Eight

$ iconv -f ISO8859-1 -t UTF-Eight < latin.txt > unicode.txt

If it is advisable to use different coding programs, you will discover a listing of the
names of all coding programs that this system is aware of by:

$ iconv --list

Python Beta assist

$ --help
utilization: [-h] [-i INPUT] [-o OUTPUT]
               [-v VERBOSITY] [-m MAX_LOOPS]

positional arguments:
  guidelines                 the identify of the beta rule grammar file

optionally available arguments:
  -h, --help            present this assist message and exit
  -i INPUT, --input INPUT
                        file from which enter is learn if not stdin
  -o OUTPUT, --output OUTPUT
                        file to which output is written if not stdout
  -v VERBOSITY, --verbosity VERBOSITY
                        stage of diagnostic output
  -m MAXLOOPS, --max-loops MAXLOOPS
                        most variety of cycles per one enter line
                        rule file    rule file

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