A leaked FBI surveillance photograph taken of Jeremy Hammond on February 29, 2012, six days earlier than the SWAT raid on his Chicago dwelling.
Photograph: Federal Bureau of Investigation

Imprisoned hacktivist Jeremy Alexander Hammond, a former WikiLeaks supply as soon as thought to be the FBI’s most-wanted cybercriminal, has been referred to as to testify earlier than a federal grand jury within the Jap District of Virginia, Gizmodo has realized.

On Saturday, the Jeremy Hammond Help Committee introduced that the 34-year-old Chicago hacker had been transferred from his medium-security jail in Memphis, Tennessee, to a federal switch heart in Oklahoma Metropolis. However on Tuesday he arrived in Virginia, the place he’s anticipated to be questioned earlier than a grand jury relating to his previous ties with WikiLeaks, the anti-secrecy group whose founder, Julian Assange, presently faces a slew of federal costs, together with a number of below the Espionage Act.

“Given the secrecy of grand jury proceedings, we don’t know the character or scope of the grand jury’s investigation. Nevertheless, our assumption is that this is identical grand jury that Chelsea Manning is presently being incarcerated for refusing to testify earlier than,” his supporters stated in a press release.

Hammond’s switch and potential testimony, which supporters say he’s unlikely to offer, raises new questions concerning the scope of the federal government’s felony case in opposition to WikiLeaks. The costs in opposition to Assange have to this point been restricted to occasions linked to the discharge of labeled U.S. authorities paperwork supplied by former Military intelligence analyst Chelsea Manning, who has herself being held in a Virginia jail for refusing to offer a grand jury her testimony.

In November, Gizmodo reported that WikiLeaks had supplied Hammond and his AntiSec hacking crew with entry to a customized search engine instrument in early 2012 in an effort to assist the hackers in rifling by way of a batch of greater than 5 million emails, which AntiSec had plundered from the servers of a personal intelligence agency the month earlier than. That 12 months, WikiLeaks would start publishing and sharing with its worldwide media companions the identical tranche of emails, which it named the “World Intelligence Recordsdata.

An anarchist who waged cyberwar in opposition to police departments, non-public safety corporations, and different establishments he deemed symbols of tyranny and social management, Hammond pleaded responsible in 2013 to attacking Stratfor, the worldwide intelligence agency primarily based in Austin, Texas. Amongst Stratfor’s purchasers on the time had been the Departments of Homeland Safety and Protection, staff of the Nationwide Safety Company, numerous police company heads, and, amongst different notable figures, former Secretary of State Henry Kissinger.

After stealing some 60,000 bank cards from the corporate, Hammond and his “revolutionary comrades” carried out what they referred to as an “act of loving egalitarian criminality,” utilizing the playing cards to donate tens of hundreds of to charities, prisoner assist teams, and digital rights organizations, together with the Digital Frontier Basis, Greenpeace, and the American Pink Cross. The hackers’ ultimately totaled greater than $700,000 in fraudulent costs, in keeping with one FBI estimate.

To his downfall, Hammond counted amongst his closest comrades in arms, unknowingly, an informant for the FBI, whose each dialog with him on-line—together with many instigating felony acts—was carefully monitored by federal brokers within the bureau’s Manhattan subject workplace.

“Jeremy pled responsible to place an finish to the case in opposition to him,” his supporters stated. “He pled responsible as a result of he had little interest in cooperating with the federal government. He was sentenced to 10 years—the utmost allowed below his plea settlement—and has been serving his time, counting all the way down to the day that he’ll lastly be free. That day was supposed to return in mid-December of 2019.”

Hammond, his supporters say, has been voluntarily enrolled in an intensive substance abuse program often called RDAP, which research have discovered, in keeping with the Bureau of Prisons, to cut back drug relapse and recidivism in prisoners. Those that efficiently full this system are eligible for a 12-month discount of their sentence. His authorized group now believes, nevertheless, that as a result of he was referred to as to testify in Virginia, he’s not eligible for early launch, flushing months of arduous work down the drain.

“The federal government’s effort to attempt to compel Jeremy to testify is punitive and mean-spirited,” his supporters stated, including: “In bringing him in opposition to his will to the Jap District of Virginia, the federal government has put an finish to his participation within the RDAP drug program, successfully including a 12 months to his sentence.”

AntiSec: Anarchists of Nameless

Beneath the flag of Nameless, Hammond and his group spent most of 2011 laying waste to authorities web sites, with a selected give attention to legislation enforcement. Whereas the group’s chosen identify, AntiSec, was derived from the anti-security motion based over a decade earlier than, in actuality, that they had little in widespread with the motion, the chief focus of which was waging struggle on the safety trade. Hammond’s AntiSec was as an alternative primarily virulent in direction of capitalists, prisons, and police.

In contrast to LulzSec and a lot of the different teams who had claimed the Nameless identify for their very own, AntiSec, like Hammond, who had as soon as positioned on a terrorist watchlist, was purely anarchistic.

Citing coordinated crackdowns on Occupy Wall Road protesters in 2011, AntiSec pilfered the emails, passwords, and bank card data of the New York State Affiliation of Chiefs of Police and the California Statewide Regulation Enforcement Affiliation. Additionally they attacked what Hammond referred to as the police “provide chain,” breaking into the web site of a army and legislation enforcement gear provider after which gleefully publishing the house addresses of hundreds of its army and police prospects.

“Whereas we attacked the establishments of capitalism, it might solely make sense to assault those that implement it, the inherently oppressive protectors of property and purveyors of social management; the pigs, the fuzz… the police,” Hammond wrote in a press launch saying the assaults.

A leaked photograph of Jeremy Hammond’s laptop computer taken at an FBI forensics lap shortly after his arrest.
Photograph: FBI

In one other put up touting the defacement and destruction of some 70 legislation enforcement web sites, which had been carried out within the names of Nameless hackers arrested by police, AntiSec wrote: “We’ve no sympathy for any of the officers or informants who could also be endangered by the discharge of their private data.” For too lengthy, the hackers stated, police had spied on them and abused their very own private data. “Retribution,” the hackers declared, “was at hand.”

Previous to breaking away from the principally Britain-based hackers who merely did hacks “for the lulz,” AntiSec revealed non-public emails, addresses, and passwords belonging to the Arizona Division of Public Security. In a press release titled “Chinga La Migra” (fuck immigration enforcement), AntiSec cited as justification SB 1070, an Arizona legislation that made it a misdemeanor for authorized immigrants to be caught with out a authorities ID card.

The ASCII artwork that accompanied the put up, launched within the identify of LulzSec (although its core members weren’t instantly concerned) included a crudely drawn assault rifle with the phrase “off the pigs” written on the inventory.

A LulzSec press launch that included emails, cellphone numbers, passwords and residential addresses stolen by AntiSec hackers from the Arizona Division of Public Security in June 2011.

Whereas below interrogation by British police the next month, one core LulzSec member would inform two detectives that he thought the assault “was too excessive.” The cops performed dumb. “What does it imply, sorry?” one requested.

It means, the underage hacker stated whereas explaining he’d needed to Google the phrase himself, “Kill the police.”

FBI’s Deceptive Stratfor Account

In early March 2012, the week of Hammond’s arrest, the FBI started to color an image for the press of how the Stratfor hack went down. It not often resembled actuality.

In a narrative titled “Contained in the Stratfor Assault,” a New York Occasions reporter labeled as “conspiracy theorists” anybody who believed the FBI had merely allowed the assault to happen. The story included a timeline supplied by FBI officers that instructed Hammond had first hacked Stratfor after which notified one of many bureau’s informants, Hector Monsegur, a 28-year-old foster dad or mum residing in Manhattan’s Alphabet Metropolis neighborhood who hacked below the deal with Sabu.

The FBI, the Occasions reported, had not realized of the breach till Dec. 6, 2011, “after the hackers had already infiltrated the corporate’s community.” However FBI surveillance information leaked to journalists in 2014 instructed a radically completely different story.

An unknown hacker named “Hyrriiya” declares he’s hacked Stratfor on December four, 2011.

The information, which stay below seal on the time of writing, revealed that Monsegur had been knowledgeable that Stratfor was already compromised two days earlier, on Dec. four, when one other hacker—whom the FBI has but to cost and even publicly acknowledge—supplied him with stolen bank cards belonging to a number of Stratfor prospects. The record included staff of the North Atlantic Treaty Group (NATO), the protection contractor Raytheon, and the U.S. Nationwide Safety Company (NSA), amongst others.

“[W]e would like to penetrate their customers/community for #antisec,” Monsegur instructed the hacker, who glided by the deal with Hyrriiya, “positively get me particulars so I can start working ;)“

On December four, 2011, “Sabu,” whose pc was being keylogged by FBI, learns that Stratfor has been hacked.
Screenshot: FBI

Hammond wouldn’t study concerning the breach for a full day, information reveal. On Dec. 5, he was pinged by Monsegur, who confirmed him the stolen bank card knowledge and stated one other hacker had supplied AntiSec “full management” of a “massive intelligence firm.” Inside a couple of hours, Monsegur launched Hammond to Hyrriiya, warning each to not talk about the assault outdoors a single non-public room. The FBI was recording every part.

The notion that the FBI was not conscious of the occasions would contradict its claims about its monitoring made later in federal courtroom. Monsegur’s relationship with the bureau was even described by the choose overseeing the case as “digital around-the-clock cooperation the place Mr. Monsegur was sitting with brokers.” His personal legal professional stated the FBI was monitoring “every part he typed with a key-logging program.” A digicam was put in in his dwelling.

The FBI would have had motive to exclude a lot of this timeline again when it granted interviews to handpicked reporters concerning the case. Even informants permitted to interact in felony exercise below the Legal professional Common’s tips are forbidden to “provoke or instigate a plan or technique to commit a federal, state, or native offense.”

Earlier than Hammond was sentenced, logs of the conversations exhibiting he’d been prompted to assault Stratfor had been handed over to his protection group. However reasonably than battle the case, and face probably 30 years in jail, he agreed to a deal limiting his sentence to 10 years as an alternative.

FBI-logged chats present Monsegur (), on the time an FBI informant, introducing Hammond () to an unknown hacker who to assist AntiSec breach Stratfor’s servers. Date: Dec. 5, 2011.
Screenshot: FBI

“Now that I’ve pleaded responsible it’s a aid to have the ability to say that I did work with Nameless to hack Stratfor, amongst different web sites,” he stated after coming into a responsible plea in Might 2013. “These others included army and police gear suppliers, non-public intelligence and data safety corporations, and legislation enforcement businesses. I did this as a result of I imagine individuals have a proper to know what governments and companies are doing behind closed doorways. I did what I imagine is true.”

A couple of 12 months earlier than, a letter had surfaced to Hammond’s attorneys signed by somebody named Hyrriiya. “I’m stating and admitting, AS FACT,” it stated, “that I used to be the one that hacked Stratfor.” The letter additionally pointed to particular non-public conversations that occurred between Hyrriiya and Monsegur that might not have been recognized by anybody else—aside from, maybe, the FBI. Reporters with entry to leaked FBI surveillance information have since assessed with excessive confidence the letter is actual.

A leaked confidential forensics report would later present that Stratfor was a minimum of partly in charge for the catastrophe (or a minimum of could be within the post-Equifax period wherein companies are scrutinized over flawed safety practices). The investigation, performed by a Verizon safety group, discovered that Stratfor had didn’t implement correct controls over important techniques, which weren’t protected by a firewall and lacked correct file integrity-monitoring. The report explicitly states that “a number of distinct vulnerabilities and community configurations existed” enabling the hackers to simply slip in.

Stratfor’s community was “extensive open.” In actual fact, attaining root entry to its servers was really easy it didn’t require a password. A leaked inside memo would later calculate the whole value of the breach at $three.78 million, a few of which Texas journalist Barrett Brown was later ordered to pay within the type of restitution, although he had no half within the assault.

Enter WikiLeaks, After the Hack

FBI surveillance information reveal a lot concerning the nature of WikiLeaks’ involvement within the Stratfor assault, all of it occurring nicely after the actual fact. AntiSec members, together with Hammond and Monsegur, each claimed at completely different occasions to keep in touch with Assange—or, a minimum of, an individual whom they believed to be him. It’s unattainable to know for sure the identification of the individual with whom they had been corresponding. (At one level, the hackers even thought that perhaps they had been speaking to Assange whereas he was pretending to be another person.)

However, the FBI-captured conversations point out that WikiLeaks didn’t formally request entry to the emails till after AntiSec had gone public concerning the assault on Dec. 25, 2011, a day the hacking group known as “LulzXMas.”

Hammond (@sup_g) discussing the discharge of Stratfor emails to WikiLeaks with different AntiSec members on December 29, 2011.
Screenshot: FBI

On Dec. 26 of that 12 months, as AntiSec launched some 30,000 Stratfor bank cards to the general public, Monsegur knowledgeable Hammond that Assange had reached out. “I feel wikileaks desires the emails,” he stated. “JA says he desires to take a look at emails first, see if they’ll do one thing with it,” he added. “[I]f the mails are in reality juicy to the purpose wikileaks will settle for it then its a wrap.”

Being part of a serious WikiLeaks launch, Hammond believed, could be “groundbreaking.”

Near midnight on Dec. 29, Hammond introduced that Assange was “nearly executed copying the information.” Different hackers within the chatroom, most of whom had been tasked with working up fraudulent costs with bank cards stolen from Stratfor, had been warned to maintain the partnership below wraps. Hammond questioned aloud: “I ponder how criminally liable JA and folk could possibly be by admitting having obtained hacked stolen and controversial information from us.”

One other hacker replied, “Nicely, NPR needed them.”

Hammond (yohoho) and Monsegur (leondavidson) discussing contact with WikiLeaks on January 12, 2012, two months earlier than Hammond was arrested.
Screenshot: FBI

Two weeks later, Hammond reported that he was again in touch with Assange. The hackers had been rising stressed and questioned when their partnership with WikiLeaks could be introduced.

“[H]e gave me entry to a search engine script for these [S]tratfor emails,” Hammond stated. Requested whether or not the script labored, Hammond stated it was “fairly primitive nevertheless it works,” including that “JA” had additionally supplied to share entry with anybody on AntiSec’s group, and that he’d requested WikiLeaks to offer Monsegur entry. Monsegur, in the meantime, was additionally secretly internet hosting the emails on an FBI server.

“Simply watch for him to hit me up,” Monsegur stated again, “these wikileaks are bitches about issues. they requested me to hack [the] icelandic authorities. I did it and so they stopped speaking to me.”

“I felt like a whore,” he stated.

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