OpenDrop: An Open Supply AirDrop Implementation

OpenDrop is a command-line instrument that enables sharing recordsdata between units immediately over Wi-Fi. Its distinctive function is that it’s protocol-compatible with Apple AirDrop which permits to share recordsdata with Apple units operating iOS and macOS.
Presently (and doubtless additionally for the foreseeable future), OpenDrop solely helps sending to Apple units which are discoverable by all people because the default contacts solely mode requires Apple-signed certificates.


OpenDrop is experimental software program and is the results of reverse engineering efforts by the Open Wi-fi Hyperlink venture.
Due to this fact, it doesn’t assist all options of AirDrop or could be incompatible with future AirDrop variations.
OpenDrop just isn’t affiliated with or endorsed by Apple Inc. Use this code at your personal danger.


To attain compatibility with Apple AirDrop, OpenDrop requires the goal platform to assist a selected Wi-Fi hyperlink layer.
As well as, it requires Python >=three.6 in addition to a number of libraries.

Apple Wi-fi Direct Hyperlink.
As AirDrop solely runs over Apple Wi-fi Direct Hyperlink (AWDL), OpenDrop is just supported on macOS or on Linux programs operating
an open re-implementation of AWDL akin to OWL.

OpenDrop depends on present variations of OpenSSL and libarchive.
macOS ships with somewhat outdated variations of the 2, so you’ll need to put in newer model, for instance, by way of Homebrew.
In any case, you’ll need to set the 2 environmental variables LIBARCHIVE and LIBCRYPTO accordingly.
For instance, use brew to put in the libraries:

brew set up libarchive openssl@1.1

Then set environmental variables:

export LIBARCHIVE=/usr/native/choose/libarchive/lib/libarchive.dylib
export LIBCRYPTO=/usr/native/choose/openssl@1.1/lib/libcrypto.dylib

Linux distributions ought to ship with extra up-to-date variations, so this would possibly not be crucial.

Set up

Set up of the Python package deal launch is straight ahead utilizing pip3:

pip3 set up opendrop

It’s also possible to set up the present improvement model by first cloning this repository, after which putting in it by way of pip3:

git clone
pip3 set up ./opendrop


We briefly clarify tips on how to ship and obtain recordsdata utilizing opendrop.
To see all command line choices, run opendrop -h.

Sending a File

Sending a file is often a two-step process. You first uncover units in proximity utilizing the discover command.
Cease the method after you have discovered the receiver.

$ opendrop discover
Searching for receivers. Press enter to cease ...
Discovered  index zero  ID eccb2f2dcfe7  identify John’s iPhone
Discovered  index 1  ID e63138ac6ba8  identify Jane’s MacBook Professional

You may then ship a file utilizing

$ opendrop ship -r zero -f /path/to/some/file
Asking receiver to simply accept ...
Receiver accepted
Importing file ...
Importing has been profitable

As a substitute of the index, you can too use ID or identify.
OpenDrop will attempt to interpret the enter within the order (1) index, (2) ID, and (three) identify and fail if no match was discovered.

Receiving Information

Receiving is way simpler. Merely use the obtain command. OpenDrop will settle for all incoming recordsdata robotically and put obtained recordsdata within the present listing.

$ opendrop obtain

Present Limitations/TODOs

OpenDrop is the results of a analysis venture and, thus, has a number of limitations (non-exhaustive record under). I don’t have the capability to work on them myself however am pleased to offer help if anyone else need to take them on.

  • Triggering macOS/iOS receivers by way of Bluetooth Low Power. Apple units begin their AWDL interface and AirDrop server solely after receiving a customized commercial by way of Bluetooth LE (see USENIX paper for particulars). This implies, that Apple AirDrop receivers will not be found even when they’re discoverable by everybody.

  • Sender/Receiver authentication and connection state. Presently, there isn’t any peer authentication as in Apple’s AirDrop, particularly, (1) OpenDrop doesn’t confirm that the TLS certificates is signed by Apple’s root and (2) that the Apple ID validation document is right (see USENIX paper for particulars). As well as, OpenDrop robotically accepts any file that it receives on account of a lacking connection state.

  • Sending a number of recordsdata. Apple AirDrop helps sending a number of recordsdata without delay, OpenDrop doesn’t (would require including extra recordsdata to the archive, modify HTTP /Ask request, and so on.).

Associated Papers

  • Milan Stute, Sashank Narain, Alex Mariotto, Alexander Heinrich, David Kreitschmann, Guevara Noubir, and Matthias Hollick. A Billion Open Interfaces for Eve and Mallory: MitM, DoS, and Monitoring Assaults on iOS and macOS By means of Apple Wi-fi Direct Hyperlink. 28th USENIX Safety Symposium (USENIX Safety ’19), August 14–16, 2019, Santa Clara, CA, USA. Hyperlink



OpenDrop is licensed beneath the GNU Normal Public License
We use a modified model of the python-zeroconf package deal (primarily including rudimentary IPv6 and AWDL assist) which is licensed beneath the GNU Lesser Normal Public License v2.1.
Each licenses are discovered within the LICENSE file.

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