What Iraq and Syria Can Educate the US About Partitions

What Iraq and Syria Can Educate the US About Partitions

It’s winter. Alongside the Iraq-Syria border, Iraqi patrol forces have swapped their laborious tactical helmets for the heat of beanie caps. The troopers look out from their commentary towers, throughout a stretch of desert into Syria.

From this concrete tower on the border, you possibly can virtually see the Syrian metropolis of Deir ez-Zor, the place the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria has made its last stand. Over there, Syrian Democratic Forces—a Kurdish-led alliance devoted to rooting out ISIS and backed by the US—have practically liberated town and its suburbs, and American troops are starting a long-awaited drawdown. A plume of gray-white smoke breaches skyward as an artillery strike reaches the villages and cities close to Deir ez-Zor. The horizon is a diaphanous blur of darkish smoke.

Between us and Syria is a fence. It’s about 43 miles lengthy, and a guard tower is situated each few hundred ft, manned by squadrons from the Iraqi border safety forces. The roughly 10-foot-tall chain-link barrier bucks and rattles within the wind. Barbed wire unspools alongside the highest, and about 20 ft past the fence, on the Syrian facet, there’s a ditch to cease explosive-laden ISIS automobiles which may cost the border. Past the ditch is a desiccated stretch of desert now largely cleared of booby traps.

The fence divides two villages, each referred to as Baghouz. The residents of Syrian Baghouz and Iraqi Baghouz as soon as traveled freely between the cities, visiting with household and pals in a spot the place worldwide borders are as hazy because the smoke between them. “It was regular for us to go to Syrian Baghouz,” says Alaa Husain, an Iraqi shepherd who has lived on this hamlet for 28 years.

From an Iraqi navy outpost, it’s potential to see artillery smoke plumes rise over the Syrian village of Baghouz.

Andrea DiCenzo

His sheep used to roam and graze wherever they happy alongside the grassy banks of the Euphrates River, however now their roaming area has been circumscribed. The fence may need been unhealthy for sheep, however it’s good for shepherds.“Now it’s safer right here than throughout ISIS’ occupation,” Husain says. “We really feel secure and safe.”

The fence between Iraq and Syria was constructed over a number of months in 2018 to maintain ISIS out of Iraq. It was additionally meant to entice ISIS inside Syria whereas forces there completed them off. (The coalition declared the world liberated in March, ending the four-year occupation by the terrorist group.) However any collaboration between the international locations has since cooled. The fence was constructed. Now something on both facet is the respective nation’s downside.

An Iraqi military soldier at a navy outpost in Iraqi Baghouz alongside the Euphrates river.

Andrea DiCenzo

A shepherd tends his flock within the village of Iraqi Baghouz. Residents of the a number of agricultural villages alongside the Euphrates have been lower off from household by the border defenses.

Andrea DiCenzo

The Syria-Iraq frontier is contested and unstable, however one other border is dominating the headlines—the American border wall with Mexico.

Disputes over its funding triggered the longest shutdown of the federal authorities within the nation’s historical past in January. And in February President Donald Trump declared a nationwide emergency to get funding to bolster the present 654 miles of obstacles with extra partitions. The talk divided the nation. Yesterday, Trump requested $four.5 billion in funds for the border. To not construct extra wall, although, however to take care of the humanitarian disaster within the area.

Trump argues that partitions are efficient—an historic know-how that is still related within the 21st century. “Partitions work,” Trump is fond of claiming. However throughout my two-week keep alongside the border fence between Iraq and Syria, a extra sophisticated actuality emerged. Partitions usually fail; they’ve unintended penalties.

In regards to the Writer

Kenneth R. Rosen is a contributing author at WIRED and a Overseas & Safety Coverage Fellow on the Heinrich Böll Basis. He obtained the Bayeux Calvados-Normandy Award for warfare correspondents and a Clarion Award for his reporting from Iraq.

Army commanders respect the thermographic cameras and pill computer systems that assist them to defend their positions alongside the border, although they want additionally they possessed among the know-how utilized by Individuals at their bases close by. In the meantime, drones and stealth surveillance plane circle overhead, making a lot of that land-based tech out of date anyway.

I wished to know how a wall can each defend and divide two international locations, the way it can each forestall and increase human struggling, and to try this I needed to go to each side of the fence. However to get to Syria, about 5 miles away from the place I stood in Iraq, I must take a circuitous route. It will contain greater than 5 days of journey, masking roughly 900 miles, and lots of extra partitions—each seen and invisible—in between.

Iraqi Border Patrol Outpost, Outdoors Baghouz, on the Border with Syria

Inside a concrete commentary tower, Aiyoub Mashkur Khalaf, an enlisted patrolman with the Iraqi border patrol, steps into the shadows. He units his binoculars onto the tough ledge, inserting them subsequent to a long-range walkie-talkie and a half-empty bottle of water. He plucks a cigarette from a pack of Gauloises. He lights it, and his face, tired-looking although he’s a mere 22 years outdated, reveals briefly within the lighter’s flame, then disappears once more into the darkness.

“You may see the SDF’s excavators and items,” Khalaf says, taking an extended pull from his cigarette and pointing the ember towards the horizon. He has been watching the Syrian Democratic Forces as they encompass the remaining ISIS fighters. The SDF have squeezed the Islamic militants right into a two-village, six-square-mile enclave on the Syria facet of the border. “We used to see plenty of lights from ISIS positions,” Khalaf says, “however now it’s higher. We don’t see them.”

A guard mans a navy watchtower north of Al-Qaim, Iraq. The nation started setting up navy outposts and a fence to safe its western border a 12 months in the past.

Andrea DiCenzo

Down the handmade steel ladder, on the foot of Khalaf’s tower, Brigadier Common Yaser al-Tamimi is inspecting a 60-mm mortar positioned behind a berm of sandbags. He kicks on the base of the cement commentary tower and a stone skitters. “An important factor for each border is to have the right commentary gear,” he says. “And we’ve got these concrete obstacles. If one thing approached them, they wouldn’t be affected, even should you shoot it 24 hours a day.”

Whereas the Iraqi forces are happy with the fence, additionally they need to collaborate with the Widespread Mobilization Items, or PMU, which is comprised of Iran-backed Shiite militias. And that cooperation is slowly breaking down. (The Iraqi navy is essentially Sunni.) As one PMU deputy commander—Abu-Saif of the Liwa al-Toufuf brigade—advised me, the fence is ineffective and poorly conceived. “It’s allegedly constructed to stop enemies from coming into, however it doesn’t work,” he says. “ISIS nonetheless crosses. You may seize the fence along with your hand and shake it, and it’ll fall down.”

Certainly, in mid-February, in response to 4 nameless intelligence officers quoted in a report from the Institute for the Research of Warfare, ISIS fighters efficiently breached the border and made their approach into Iraq.

Iraqi military troopers look out over the border between Iraq and Syria.

Andrea DiCenzo

Later within the day, a number of miles south, I’m standing on the crest of a hill with a handful of border guards. I can see the Euphrates River funneling from Syria into the lowlands of the Iraqi desert. I’ve climbed to the highest of a berm to raised see the encampment and Syrian Baghouz when the captain tells me to thoughts my head and step down a bit, out of the road of fireplace of enemy snipers. I ask if we are able to get any nearer. Syria appears virtually walkable from right here. He and the opposite guards chuckle.

The captain shakes my hand. He says, “Good luck.”

Al-Qaim, Iraq, Al Jazeera Operation Outpost, 5 miles from the border.

My first cease is town of Al-Qaim, a couple of miles deeper into Iraq from the fence. (It’s pronounced with a troublesome “ch,” lots just like the Hebrew phrase chaim, which suggests life.) Al-Qaim was, in actual fact, lengthy an energetic border crossing with Syria, however it has been closed for years, ever since ISIS captured its sliver of land throughout the border.

Many years in the past, there was a phosphate plant right here that employed hundreds of individuals, however US forces destroyed elements of the power throughout the Gulf Warfare in 1991. In 2005, throughout a back-and-forth battle for turf with the US Military, insurgents supposedly hung an indication on the metropolis’s entrance which learn, “Welcome to the Islamic Republic of Qaim.” ISIS managed it between November 2014 and November 2017 when it was liberated by Iraqi forces.

ISIS could have been ejected from this a part of Iraq, however the fighters who achieved that eviction are actually squabbling amongst themselves for management and affect. That dispute is enjoying out in Al-Qaim, which is the hub of navy management for the fence.

Combating among the many native forces, divided equally between the Iraqi border guards and the PMU, has left the city divided over the fence: The PMU needs full management, as do the Iraqi border forces. Each have separate hierarchies and every has its personal command construction. They usually don’t agree, an ongoing dispute that’s emblematic of this war-torn area, the place competing factions with their very own political and navy agendas jostle facet by facet for energy and affect.

Al-Qaim’s mayor believes the fence is important to the steadiness wanted to efficiently rebuild the city, which continues to be pocked with airstrike particles. He says the financial system continues to be depressed. This can be a fertile area alongside the Euphrates, however the 1,600 center-pivot irrigation sprinklers and the dairy farms and adjoining fields on which they sit stay idle. With extra safety, together with the fence and the forces tasked with guarding it, Mayor Ahmed Jidian Aldulaimi believes enterprise may then thrive. “After all it is going to be higher,” he says.

However the fence additionally prevents commerce with close by Syrian cities. So long as the border crossing stays closed, commerce into and thru Al-Qaim stays scant.

The Iraqi border-guard commanders monitor their items alongside the border fence from right here, and the Al-Qaim base is comprised in a part of a number of cellular white trailers behind blast partitions. In one of many trailers, video screens show reside feeds from cameras mounted inside the base. The tasteless room is stuffed with Iraqi troopers, and they’re making an attempt to keep away from speaking concerning the PMU positions south of them, pretending that different forces with whom they need to be collaborating don’t exist. They need to consider they’ve management over their complete fence and haven’t given up something to what are thought of militias from Iran. In the meantime, they’re unclear about the place the borders really lie. Consequently, the scene within the trailer is alternatingly chaotic and comedic.

Blast partitions painted with the Iraqi flag stand on the shuttered civilian crossing level between Iraq and Syria. The crossing level, between Al-Qaim and Abu Kamal, fell into insurgent palms shortly after the start of the Syrian civil warfare in 2011.

Andrea DiCenzo

“Now, once more from the start,” says a brigadier common with gold-rimmed glasses perched low on his nostril. He asks whether or not an space on the map is below their surveillance.

“No, the second brigade’s obligation is simply to protect the border,” one other colonel says. “It’s not their duty to guard the inside.”

The officers are consulting tablets outfitted with an app they inform me they developed, however which I later be taught is one in all a number of widespread map apps (like AlpineQuest or Maps.Me) utilized by combating forces in each Syria and Iraq. They’re scattered with small dots that denote power positions. Every one is labeled with numerical division numbers. The 2 officers faucet and pinch the iPad display screen and rotate the gadget to orient the map horizontally.

“These are our borders?”

“These are the outdated ones.”

The youthful colonel, hunched over the iPad with the brigadier common, seems up and says, “One query. Is Al-Husainiyat Valley our territory? Are we answerable for it?”

“Sure, I believe so,” one other officer says.

“No,” the overall says. “That’s lined by First Division. Not us.”

“No, no,” the youthful colonel says, tapping extra furiously on the pill display screen. “That’s the place our patrols cowl. Come on, man!” Not solely are they combating in opposition to the PMU, they’re additionally confused about the place their very own brigades are supposed to patrol.

Maps on the far partitions reveals three underground oil pipelines and border outposts. The map outlines the approximate border line between Iraq and Syria. They are saying approximate, as a result of it may fluctuate and nobody would know.

Expertise may sharpen the definition of the border and assist make it safer. One factor the border guards need is a sequence of tethered balloons, often known as aerostats. Connected to the bottom by massive cables, they’re full of helium they usually float between 10,000 and 15,000 ft above the bottom. The American bases close by have them and the Iraqis are envious. The Lockheed Martin surveillance radar which hangs from one of many balloon’s bays can monitor an space round 230 miles in diameter. These blimps don’t exchange the earth-filled HESCO obstacles or concrete T-walls that encompass a navy base or outpost. Quite, the balloons enable commanders to establish the place to deploy troops and keep a defensive surveillance perimeter in opposition to assaults. (Comparable balloons are tethered alongside the US border with Mexico.)

These balloons may have prevented a breach six months in the past, caught on the final minute by short-range infrared cameras right here alongside the border with Syria, which revealed 11 ISIS fighters utilizing a pair of bolt cutters to get by the fence and assault patrol forces. None made it into the nation alive, however solely after a firefight.

For the reason that rise of ISIS, Predator drones operated by pilots out of a base close to Las Vegas have criss-crossed the skies. They relieve troopers of among the work of tending the wall. However the bodily rampart is being changed by extra digital partitions, anyway, as 21st century innovations circumvent historic know-how. You don’t want a wall when a border may be patrolled by drones. At one level I look as much as the sky and see a Predator. The lens refracts the late-morning solar. It appears to wink.

Outdoors, behind the blast partitions and safety fences, a soldier runs a 6-inch painter’s curler brush up and down an exterior wall, the white paint changing into much less white and beginning to run as he goes. His identify is Abdullah Sheila, of the eighth Division, 23rd Brigade, and he stands within the chilly with paint speckling his camo uniform and his boots. I ask him why he feels the necessity to paint an unpleasant wall meant to be met by bomb blasts and gunfire.

“I’m simply making an attempt to make the bottom extra elegant,” he says.

Passing Via Baghdad, En Path to Syria

The earliest present territorial wall is believed to have been in-built Syria some four,000 years in the past. The Très Lengthy Mur (or Very Lengthy Wall) is greater than 100 miles lengthy and roughly three ft tall. Baghdad itself, which I’ve to move by to get to the distant open border checkpoint, was as soon as encircled by an amazing wall and dubbed the “Spherical Metropolis” by its founder, Abū Jaʿfar ʿAbd Allāh al-Manṣūr ibn Muḥammad.

Al-Mansur designed his metropolis as one massive circle surrounded by a massively fortified double wall. He ordered his employees to soak cotton balls in petroleum and to mild them alongside the proposed place of the outer partitions. He surveyed the crisp, burnt earth earlier than approving the development. Then the constructing started.

The outermost wall, at 80 ft excessive, was constructed of a whole bunch of hundreds of bricks bonded along with reeds from the river. A moat encircled the bulwark and the wall’s four-mile circumference. The builders added 4 gates—the Sham Gate, the Khorasan Gate, the Basra Gate, and the Kufa Gate—which had been the one methods into or out of town. Baghdad’s round partitions stood till the early 1870s, when the reformist Ottoman governor Midhat Pasha tore them right down to modernize town.

Via the 1990s and with the invasion of allied forces within the early 2000s, Iraq remained a rustic of partitions. Through the American siege and occupation of Baghdad in 2007, troopers constructed partitions to divide neighborhoods and created a literal wall between Shia and Sunni Muslims, dividing Baghdad into ever-smaller cities and neighborhoods.

Rampant assassinations, automobile bombs, and battle ravaged the populations on each side of these partitions. However in 2009, the concrete blast obstacles round Baghdad got here down. Town remained segregated for practically a decade after, with authorities officers partitioned away in a central zone; that zone was partially opened in December 2018. “Town went again to regular, the individuals relaxed, and even investments and commerce elevated,” says Abdul Kareem, a resident of Baghdad’s Sadr Metropolis neighborhood. “The enterprise of eating places, cafés, and soccer fields improved. All that funding got here after the removing of the T-walls.”

And now that Iraq is not crisscrossed by divisive inside partitions, efforts have been redirected to frame safety. Among the T-walls—a sort of moveable blast barrier manufactured from concrete and rebar—had been relocated to the west, used at checkpoints and in farmlands, the place safety on the border with Syria is now the main focus of the central authorities in Baghdad.

An Iraqi navy outpost alongside the Euphrates river. The villages of Iraqi Baghouz and Syrian Baghouz have been divided by the development of navy outposts and a fence so as to present safety to Iraq’s western border.

Andrea DiCenzo

The highways in northern Iraq that result in the open border crossing are lined by farms, and the land is chewed up and tossed round; mounds function defensive positions and trenches run the size of the lengthy extensive highway, which is flanked by partitions. Partitions of concrete, partitions of brick. Partitions manufactured from tarpaulin and Unicef tents and barbed wire. Partitions of vans and automobiles idling at checkpoints. Partitions of overturned automobiles and vans. Partitions in all phases of life: Partitions that also stand and partitions that don’t. White partitions, pink partitions. Partitions of concrete made to seem like brick. A flatbed at a checkpoint was laden with three moveable T-walls laid flat. They might be taken and positioned wherever they had been wanted—creating ever-shifting, generally contracting, generally increasing borders to divide those that want safety and those that do not.

And whether or not they’re T-walls or chain-link fences or large stunning border partitions between the US and Mexico, partitions are all the time divisive. They’re meant to divide, in any case. “For each one who sees a wall as an act of oppression, there’s all the time one other urging the development of newer, increased, and longer obstacles,” David Frye writes in his guide, Partitions: A Historical past of Civilization in Blood and Brick. “The 2 sides hardly converse to one another.”

However the deadliest obstacles alongside this highway are the hidden ones. Because the Islamic State retreated from their holdouts right here in late 2017, they planted improvised explosive units to type a defensive wall round their positions. ISIS used these IED belts to safe villages they captured, says Sol Black, a program supervisor within the State Division’s Workplace of Weapons Removing and Abatement. “As soon as they had been in a fortified village, they might put two to a few concentric rings of landmines round that village.”

As late as December, ISIS fighters had been planting IEDs alongside the roads from Baghdad and up by northern Iraq, the place the ultimate highway by the hill nation to Syria is lined with encampments for internally displaced individuals.

Lastly, after touring a whole bunch of miles, I attain the crossing into Syria. The border right here is technically the Tigris River, and usually pedestrians cross the frontier by ferry (a pal has dropped me off). However as we speak a crash has scuttled the boats, so I am directed by a Kurdistan Regional Authorities official to a gravel lot, the place I await some minutes till a bus arrives. I climb up and discover a seat, stuff my rucksack between my legs, and place my backpack on my lap. The bag blocks my view, however I hear the bus is filling rapidly and groaning beneath the load of extra individuals than it’s meant to hold.

The bus lumbers down a highway to the Iraqi shoreline, the place a sequence of pontoon platforms stretch throughout the river and type a swaying bridge that bobs within the river despite the taut cables that safe it to the banks. The cables for every pontoon bend and sway because the bus slowly makes its approach throughout.

As soon as we cross the river, we’re in Syria, on our method to Syrian Baghouz. As we drive into the nation and towards the ultimate holdout of the Islamic State, we move an extended line of US navy gear and provides being withdrawn, rushing in the wrong way.

Al-Souseh, Syria, Outdoors Deir ez-Zor

The drive into the city of Hajin, which Syrian forces cleared 20 days in the past, is a joyless journey. The frontline, the place Syrian Democratic Forces are attempting to seize or kill final ISIS fighters, is a couple of miles away, and town is nothing. Storefronts gone. Automobiles flipped into ravines. Craters from bomb blasts and artillery strikes are obstacles round which automobiles swerve. The highway itself swerves now too. Alongside the thoroughfare residential buildings stand like skeletons.

To get to al-Souseh, the place I need to go to frontline fighters and stroll as near the border fence in Syria as potential, I bump alongside the swerving roads within the backseat of a mud-encrusted van. Two SDF fighters sit within the entrance, Kalashnikov butts resting on the ground between their knees. The climate forecast requires thick fog, and that has made the temper within the van tense. ISIS counteroffensives in opposition to Kurdish forces all the time began in unhealthy climate.

On sooner or later in November, proper on this space, a heavy sandstorm blinded the B-1s and the circling drones. ISIS fighters took benefit of the hobbled machines to mount a guerilla-style assault that killed 24 SDF fighters. With airstrikes and artillery assaults successfully unattainable, the militants had been in a position to penetrate far past their redoubt alongside the Euphrates River.

Our van creeps alongside a avenue in al-Souseh studded by small bushes. I alight from the automobile and, considering again to the commander in Iraq, duck my head in case of snipers. An SDF encampment is plagued by small arms and rifles, the women and men sipping tea round noon.

There’s something so regular a few quiet warfare zone. Too usually photos of combating make it appear to be a relentless bombardment when in actual fact warfare is about ready, persistence, tactical development. I see a fowl, then a canine, and the cool breeze feels welcome. We climb as much as the highest of a constructing, and from there, I see the desert between Iraq and Syria from the opposite facet. We’re lower than six miles from the border with Iraq. I attempt to see the Iraqi fence and the concrete outposts the place I stood roughly per week in the past, however it’s too far.

Too usually photos of combating make it appear to be a relentless bombardment when in actual fact warfare is about ready, persistence, tactical development.

Andrea DiCenzo

Even when I may see the concrete outposts, the fence can be invisible at this distance, its diamond chain-link veil misplaced to the desert.

Proper right here in entrance of me, every little thing is masticated and churned over. Remnants of warfare lie all over the place: Over right here an unexploded mortar spherical pokes its navigation fins from the earth, and over there the roof of a house is blipped with bulletholes.

The air in each international locations is tinged with steel, the essence of bullets and uncovered rebar that can linger for some whereas, whether or not or not there’s a wall, whether or not or not ISIS departs or stays. In Syria, those that return to Hajin, al-Souseh, and the broader Deir ez-Zor space discover there’s nothing left for them. In Iraq, the individuals are ostensibly free, and at the same time as they battle to reclaim the remnants of their former lives earlier than ISIS, they may reside with the fallout of its rule for a few years to come back. In as we speak’s wars, there isn’t a clear winner.

Two males survey the harm executed to their neighbor’s houses in Hajin.

Andrea DiCenzo

Civilians who’ve returned to the village of Hajin. The village was liberated from Islamic State rule in earlier this 12 months.

Andrea DiCenzo

Behind me, Rashé Darbasiyah and several other different girls with the SDF’s Girls’s Safety Items are stress-free after their final advance in opposition to ISIS positions. The ultimate ISIS fighters are sequestered in a number of homes in Syrian Baghouz, a couple of miles away. “Proper now the combating has stopped,” she says and leans again to soak up the solar.

The frontline has cooled as a result of the previous few ISIS fighters are utilizing civilians as human shields to wall off the fighters from the liberators. The coalition has admitted to killing no less than 51 civilians over the course of its operations right here. Whereas troops await orders, inner tensions between the SDF right here in Syria and the Iraqi military on the opposite facet of the border simmer. “Previously, the SDF and Iraqi military had been working collectively,” says Harun Kochar, a spokesperson for the SDF. An iPad with the SDF positions plugged right into a map utility is tucked between his ammo belt and his chest, like a bullet-resistant plate. “Now every of them solely protects their border,” he says.

Rashé Darbasiyah (proper) and two feminine fighters with the YPJ, or Girls’s Safety Items inside the SDF, loosen up between tactical actions inside ten miles of the border. “Proper now the combating has stopped,” Darbasiyah says.

Andrea DiCenzo

The Syrian Democratic Forces complain concerning the Iraqi forces and the PMU who watch them combat by binoculars. The Iraqi forces and the PMU complain about one another, a circle of distrust. “Generally the PMU are simply as unhealthy as ISIS,” one SDF soldier tells me concerning the Iranian-backed forces on the Iraqi border. “Generally they’re worse than ISIS.” Probably the most enduring and cussed partitions are those we erect in opposition to the individuals we distrust.

The liberated individuals of the Deir ez-Zor governorate and the coalition don’t get alongside, both. The SDF had been cautious of the civilians returning to Hajin and the encircling areas, believing all civilians had been ISIS or a part of sleeper cells returning to wreak havoc on the liberation forces. “In the event that they weren’t ISIS, then ISIS would by no means have stood an opportunity right here,” one soldier tells me.

Again in Hajin, armored Bearcats shuttle troops to and from the frontlines. A bulldozer is sunk right into a gap dug by an artillery blast or airstrike. The blue sky overhead is streaked by fighter jet contrails. The ISIS brand, a black oval round white Arabic, can nonetheless be seen on among the partitions round Hajin. These partitions will must be torn down. Alongside the principle highway by town males take turns with a sledgehammer to show a fallen wall to rubble. That rubble will probably be used to construct a special wall—this one to assist a brand new home.

On the street close by, an SDF patrol unit has stopped outdoors a checkpoint. The streets are quiet and the mud settles to the earth behind the Humvee. Two males, their heads wrapped in crimson keffiyehs, stab powerful fingers on the SDF troopers, arguing with them. Higher to separate these locals so as to subdue them. So one of many troopers grabs the older of the lads by the arm and marches him to the opposite facet of the road, away from his companion. The SDF soldier rips off the person’s headdress and raises an extended stick. He strikes the person within the facet as he stands. The pal seems on as the person is hit as soon as extra.

On the opposite facet of the road, SDF fighters circle the opposite lone man, his crimson keffiyeh nonetheless atop his head. They jostle him, tough him up, maintain him again. They push him and pin him in opposition to the Humvee.

The highway runs between the 2 males, separating them as successfully as a fence, a river, or a string of IEDs. Throughout it they stand aside, arms outstretched, unable to assist one another.


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